Explanans and Explanandum Εκτύπωση
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An explanandum (a Latin term) is a phenomenon that needs to be explained and its explanans is the explanation of that phenomenon. For example, one person may pose an explanandum by asking "Why is there smoke?", and another may provide an explanans by responding "Because there is a fire". In this example, "smoke" is the explanandum, and "fire" is the explanans.


In scientific method

Carl Gustav Hempel and Paul Oppenheim (1948), in their deductive-nomological model of scientific explanation, motivated the distinction between explanans and explanandum in order to answer why-questions, rather than simply what-questions:

"the event under discussion is explained by subsuming it under general laws, i.e., by showing that it occurred in accordance with those laws, by virtue of the realization of certain specified antecedent conditions"

Hempel & Oppenheim, 1948, (p.152)



Specifically, they define the concepts as follows:


"By the explanandum, we understand the sentence describing the phenomenon to be explained (not that phenomenon itself); by the explanans, the class of those sentences which are adduced to account for the phenomenon"

Hempel & Oppenheim, 1948, (p.152)


The crucial comment, with respect to the scientific method, is given as follows:

"It may be said... that an explanation is not fully adequate unless its explanans, if taken account of in time, could have served as a basis for predicting the phenomenon under consideration.... It is this potential predictive force which gives scientific explanation its importance: Only to the extent that we are able to explain empirical facts can we attain the major objective of scientific research, namely not merely to record the phenomena of our experience, but to learn from them, by basing upon them theoretical generalizations which enable us to anticipate new occurrences and to control, at least to some extent, the changes in our environment"

Hempel & Oppenheim, 1948, (p.154)

[wiki]


Ukraine.

Middle East.

“Violence is manifested at Ukraine and Middle East”. This is an explanandum.

Do we already have a corresponding and sufficient explanans?

Do we already have a corresponding plan for using the explanans in order for retaining international peace?

Do we have an effective “decision system” in order to apply any already existing plan?

Right now, July 21, 2014, 23:32, we should all be concentrated exclusively in optimizing the structure and the dynamics of our home, the European Union; but we aren't.

Innocent human beings are lost!

If violence in Ukraine and Middle East is avoidable (ορθή μετάφραση: "μπορεί να αποφευχθεί"), should we beg those who are responsible for applying any already known and simple solutions, for rescuing the lives of innocent human beings?

We beg them.