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Framing Dissidents

  

Επικοινωνία

Location: Berlin, Germany

Only send SMS +41762833777

Citizen Band Radio:

- Call-channel: 1 FM (frequency modulation)

- Call-sign: EB-1142

CIA's Child Sex Slaves

  

Πατριώτη S.O.S.

  

Greek Dissidents Political Persecution



 

A Greek Government In Exile

  

60+ Trillion Euros Dispute for Greece's Minerals



 

21/06/2020 International Protests

 

Robbed at Copenhagen

 

George Bobolas

 

Prespes-Agreement Superimposed-Reality Ruthless-Propaganda

 

 

 

 

Mielke - Chrisochoidis

 

O/L to British P/M

 

O/L to E. Macron

 

Accountability-Free Genocides

 

Militarized "psychiatry"

 

The Absolute Evil

 

Gang-stalking Greeks

 

Byzantine Atrocities

 

European Dissidents ALARM

 

Human Rights' Court

 

The used up men

 

Dissidents - USG RICO crimes

 

Open Letter to Theresa May

 

Open Letter to António Guterres UN's SG

 

Triangulation - Zersetzen

 

Open Letter to Andrew Parker, MI5

  

Πράξεις ποταπές - Despicable choices

 

 

My father's death

 

Cavitation damage

 

Burglary and vandalism

 

Dry mini submarine

 

Message to Bundeswehr 2

 

Message to Bundeswehr 1

 

“Tough” guys and TOUGH guys

 

Μοναδική λύση, το Χόλιγουντ

 

Charlatans

 

Zeppelin: Beyond Gravity

 

Foreign intervention in Greece?

 

Η ανελεύθερη Ελλάδα

 

Η Ελλάδα καταγώγιο;

 

Αν.Επ. Π. Παυλόπουλο

  

Intangible prisons

 

Plausible deniability

 

Images of German w & s

 

Crimes against Humanity

 

"Chimera" - "Bellerophon"

 

pr. Donald Trump

 

  

Legal Notice 87

 

Βδέλλες, αποικιοκρατικές

 

Being a German

 

Legal Notice 84

 

Dirty colonial methods

 

Georgi Markov, BG - KGB

 

Samples of Barbarity

 

Ελλάδα - αποκόλληση

 

Έλληνες, στο έλεος...

 

Harvester's log 16/3/17

 

 

Legal Notice 66

 

Execrable

 

Legal Notice 62

 

  

My story

 

  

Aggression?

 

  

Η Εστία μου

 

  

Why so untidy?

 

  

Αποικιοκρατία

 

  

Εξόντωση Ελλήνων αντιφρονούντων;

 

  

Ζήτημα εμπιστοσύνης

 

  

Μεθοδικότητα

 

  

Ανοικτή Επιστολή πρέσβη ΗΠΑ

Αφορμή, U2RIT vs Ελλάδα;

Βιοηθική

A request to U2RIT

Colonial aggression - 2

Open Letter to UN S.G.

Open Letter to p.C. & p. O.

Δήλωση πρόθεσης επαναπατρισμού

 

Ο "εφιάλτης" της Νυρεμβέργης

Συλλογή Φωτογραφιών

Αίτημα προστασίας, προς Ιταλία

Chroma key, background removal

Science and Ethics

Να συμβάλει και η U2RIT

Θα ξαναφτιάξουν πολλές φορές Άουσβιτς και Zyclon B

 

Split-Screen effect

Η Ζωή είναι Ωραία.

Βόρεια Κορέα

Λευτεριά στους Έλληνες, εξανα- γκαστικά "Εξαφανισμένους"

 

Μυστικές δίκες;

Trustworthiness

Πολιτισμό, ή, απληστία;

Ακραία Στυγνότητα

Η Τέχνη της Επιβίωσης

Political Asylum 3

Επιστροφή στις ρίζες

The Human Cost of Torture

An urgent appeal for solidarity

More obvious than the Sun

Western "culture"

Political Asylum

Έννομη Προστασία

Μια μήνυση που εγείρει ερωτηματικά

 

 

 

Honor your father...

Noise

Creative Greeks

A pair of Dictatorships

Framing Dissidents – Brain-Implants With Homelessness PDF Εκτύπωση E-mail
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Συνεννόηση για Δράση - Απόψεις
Συντάχθηκε απο τον/την Χρήστος Μπούμπουλης (Christos Boumpoulis)   
Δευτέρα, 24 Αύγουστος 2020 19:28

Turkey launches first of six new submarines to be operational by 2027 For the Eastern Mediterranean

www.youtube.com/watch?v=hgRGBf7GmH8

 

CIA Funded Mind Control Experiments - Bull & Cat Tests by Dr Delgado in the 1960s

www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ni2FFSAhTcA

 

José Delgado, implants, and electromagnetic mind control

www.youtube.com/watch?v=23pXqY3X6c8

 

Edward Snowden on the most shocking way the NSA spies on people 2014

www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZBsIsLRHCEw

 

Die deutsche Karte - Ein Land ohne Souveränität Gerd Helmut Komossa

www.youtube.com/watch?v=-V_TyH6eab4

 

Framing Dissidents – Brain-Implants With Homelessness

 

Right now, on 24/08/2020 and in Germany, things, horrible according to my opinion, are happening which they expose the large extent of the European Union project’s failure.

The Germans are gentlemen and wherever it is applicable, they strictly follow the knightly code of honour.

Though, sadly, there is the May 21th, 1949 despicable international treaty and its kanzlerakte (by which, the Germany’s national sovereignty is being severely diminished and the German citizens’ human-rights they are being “compromised”.

Turkey remains, profoundly, an extremely Rogue State. For this reason, the Germans, by themselves, would had never supplied Turkey even just one military bullet; and even less, six advanced type 214 submarines. Because, the Germans know very well that, these German weapons, they shall be used illegitimately in order for innocent human-beings to become exterminates, and thus, the Germany’s moral capital shall, unavoidably, be “gone by the winds”.

But instead, because of the May 21th, 1949 treaty, they agreed to supply Turkey with six of them.

And even worst, I publicized this attempt of an extreme moral code violation. This public exposure has, literary, cemented the E.U.’s politics because, the Germans are Germans; and as such, they would never disgrace themselves by hiding behind their finger; they know that my opinion is right and thus they self-constraint themselves.

The decision to arm Turkey with advanced submarines can be no one else than the U2RIT’s who urges to harbour the Greece’s non-uniformed colonizing-army’s members and to whitewash these members’ monstrous crimes against children/adults Greeks. And for this reason, Germany shall not be allowed to earn enormous monetary wealth by selling these submarines, through an auction, to third parties.

Simultaneously, the colonisers are colonisers. And as such, they shall attempt to destroy me in order for the rogue Turkey to become heavily armed in order for the Greeks to become “busted”.

Here the time sequence:

 

16/07/2020 Καταγγελία Εγκλήματος Κατά Περιουσίας

22/07/2020 Καταγγελία Ύπαρξης και Δράσης Εγκληματικής Οργάνωσης

24/07/2020, the power-stearing's belt of my car, for no obvious reason and non-gradually, started to produce loud mechanical noice.

25/07/2020 Money -> Weapons + Criminal = Murders http://agorapoliton.gr/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2657:money-weapons-criminal-murders&catid=27:apopseis&Itemid=62

28/07/2020 Legal Notice 151 – Νομική Δήλωση 151 http://agorapoliton.gr/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2662:legal-notice-151-&catid=27:apopseis&Itemid=62

03/08/2020 I formally requested, in vane, from the German State protection relative to the U.N. resolution A/55/383, 55/25 Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, articles 24, 25.

05/08/2020 I formally requested, in vane, from the Swise State protection relative to the U.N. resolution A/55/383, 55/25 Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, articles 24, 25.

15/08/2020 Legal Notice 156 http://agorapoliton.gr/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2684:legal-notice-156&catid=35:apopseis&Itemid=61

 

On 25/07/2020 I rise the submarines’ issue mildly and 15/08/2020, strictly.

Consequently, my private car, on 28/07/2020 becomes confiscated by the German police and thus, I become homeless.

And even worst, on 16/07/2020 and 22/07/2020 I reported to the Greek, and others, security authorities important legal evidence about the U2RIT’s criminality in Greece, along with the identities of leading settler-colonizing army’s members.

Consequently, the U2RIT wants to destroy me, in order for the Germans’s to become convinced to deliver the submarines to the rogue State and in order to harbour the criminals which I reported to the security authorities and to cover-up their heinous crimes.

In order to self-protect myself, I made a research and I found out how, the monstrous colonizers are going to frame me:

 

- it is a matter fact that, I am involuntarily brain-implanted with, brain-locking, remote-neural-monitoring technology.

- it is a matter fact that, my made homeless was instrumental (from 16/07/2020 until today, I contacted the Greek police [01/08, 24/8] for becoming updated about my stolen rents but no information was given to me.

- it is a matter fact that, as having become homeless, each day for few hours, I shall become totally vulnerable by having to sleep in a public place while also being brain-implanted.

 

The colonizers, according to verified information, shall either,

- undress me, while having switched-off my brain and they shall call unsuspected members of any security or medical authority in order to slander me as an alleged “mental case”, or,

- they shall “couple” me either with illegal objects (e.g. weapons, narcotics, etc.), or, with illegitimate actions (e.g. almost adult alleged “sexual partners, etc.).

 

Concluding, I wish to hold sole responsible for any imminent attempt against me of criminal framing me, all those European governments which illegitimately denied to me the legitimate protection which I am entitled to because, I am a legitimate Greek political refuge and an witness against, and a victim of, the transnational organized crime.

 

Christos Boumpoulis

economist

 

Appendix

 

Καταγγελία προς Ελληνική Αστυνομία – Έγκλημα κατά Περιουσίας

Περίληψη: Καταγγελία προς Ελληνική Αστυνομία – Έγκλημα κατά Περιουσίας.

 

Καταγγελία προς Ελληνική Αστυνομία – Έγκλημα κατά Περιουσίας

 

Προς: Αρχηγείο Ελληνικής Αστυνομίας

Από: κ. Χρήστο Μπούμπουλη

Ημερομηνία: 16/07/2020

Θέμα: Καταγγελία Εγκλήματος Κατά Περιουσίας

 

Αξιότιμε κ. Διοικητά,

Σας καταγγέλω έγκλημα κατά της ιδιωτικής μου περιουσίας και ζητώ την άμεση επέμβασή σας και την αυτεπάγγελτη δίωξη των δραστών.

Με βάση τα συμβόλαια ... και ... συμβολαιογράφου κ. ... και μετά την αποβίωση του πατέρα μου Παναγιώτη Μπόμπολα, στις 12/12/2015, έχω πλήρη κυριότητα του ... και ψιλή κυριότητα του ... του διαμερίσματος ... Σύμφωνα με πληροφορίες, το εν λόγω διαμέρισμα εκμεταλλεύεται οικονομικά, αυθαίρετα, καταχρηστικά και παράνομα, δίχως την συγκατάθεσή μου, ο ... εκμισθώνοντάς το στην ...

Σας παρακαλώ, άμεσα, να επιβεβαιώσετε την καταγγελία μου και να προβείτε στις νόμιμες ενέργειες τερματισμού της καταπάτησης της περιουσίας μου και κλοπής του παραχθέντος εισοδήματος και να μου αναφέρετε.

Με τιμή,

Χρήστος Μπούμπουλης

οικονομολόγος

Αρ. αστ.ταυτ.: ...

εκδ. ...

Αυτή η διεύθυνση ηλεκτρονικού ταχυδρομείου προστατεύεται από κακόβουλη χρήση. Χρειάζεται να ενεργοποιήσετε την Javascript για να τη δείτε.

Βερολίνο, Γερμανία

 

Προς: Αρχηγείο Ελληνικής Αστυνομίας τμήμα Ανθρωποκτονιών

Από: κ. Χρήστο Μπούμπουλη

Ημερομηνία: 22/07/2020

Θέμα: Καταγγελία Ύπαρξης και Δράσης Εγκληματικής Οργάνωσης

 

Αξιότιμοι Κυρίες/Κύριοι,

Στις 12/12/2015 πέθανε ο πατέρας μου Παναγιώτης Μπόμπολας, κάτοικος Αθηνών και περίπου τον Φεβρουάριο 2020 πέθανε ο Γιώργος Βουλγαρίδης, κάτοικος Λουτρού Αλεξανδρούπολης.

Ο πρώτος γνώριζε Μ.Δ. ενώ ο δεύτερος είχε συνάντηση μαζί της, τον Νοέμβριο του 2016.

Το Νοέμβριο του 2019 σας ενημέρωσα ότι, ο Γ. Βουλγαρίδης είναι ουσιώδης μάρτυς σε εγκληματική δράση τρίτων, ότι πιθανώς επιχειρείται η δολοφονία του και ζήτησα, να τον προστατεύσετε και να του πάρετε κατάθεση. Μετά από τρεις μήνες πέθανε.

Μ.Δ. γνωρίζει, επίσης, τον Φ.Μ.

Εναντίον του τελευταίου υποβλήθηκε η μήνυση ... στην εισαγγελία ... Η εισαγγελία ... κωλυσιέργησε για πολλούς μήνες και μετά μεταβίβασε την μήνυση στην εισαγγελία ... ενώ ήταν επικείμενη η παραγραφή των κακουργημάτων. Στις 19/2/2014, δύο μήνες πριν την παραγραφή, εκδίδεται απορρηπτική απόφαση. Ενώ προετοίμαζα την αίτηση της αναίρεσης της απόφασης, στις 12/3/2014 (http://agorapoliton.gr/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1252&Itemid=62 ) δηλαδή, ένα μήνα πριν την παραγραφή, υφίσταμαι πολιτική δίωξη εκ μέρους των Ελληνικών αρχών.

Την 1η Μαΐου 2014 αυτομολώ στην βόρεια Ευρώπη. Στην συνέχεια και μέχρι τις 26/01/2015 ( com_content&view=article&id=1869:my-father-s-death&catid=27:apopseis&Itemid=62 ) μεθοδεύεται η δολοφονία του Παναγιώτη Μπόμπολα. Στις 26/01/2015 ο Παναγιώτης Μπόμπολας και η σύζυγός του Όλγα Μπόμπολα, ... από τον ..., τον οποίον είχαν … και οι δύο και ο οποίος τους είχε υπεξαιρέσει περισσότερα από 200 εκατομμύρια δραχμές. Στις 12/12/2015 πεθαίνει ο Παναγιώτης Μπόμπολας υποτίθεται από φυσικά αίτια.

Με τα ανωτέρω γεγονότα συνδέεται εγκληματική οργάνωση παράνομης λήψης και διακίνησης ανθρώπινων οργάνων και ιστών από Έλληνες, παιδιά και ενήλικες και τέλεσης παράνομων ανθρώπινων πειραμάτων. Από αυτή την οργάνωση, θυματοποιήθηκε απάνθρωπα η οικογένεια των Παναγιώτη και Όλγας Μπόμπολα προκειμένου να διαπραχθούν παράνομες παραβιάσεις των ανθρώπινων δικαιωμάτων μου. Για αυτή την εγκληματική οργάνωση και για εκληματική δράση σε βάρος μελών της οκκογένειάς μου, εκτιμώ ότι, ουσιώδεις μαρτυρικές καταθέσεις θα έπρεπε να παραχωρήσουν και ενδεχομένως να διωχθούν ποινικά, οι εξής: A.Ο., Α.Α., Β.Π., Λ.Φ., Γ.Μ., Μ.Δ, Γ.Ν., Δ.Κ., κ. Ι. (...), Γ.Μ., Α.Π., Π.Ψ., Α.Α., Χ.Π., Δ.Χ., Σ.Ε., Φ.Α., Ε.Α., Ε.Γ., Ν.Γ, Φ.Μ, Ν.Κ., Θ.Γ., Β.Σ.. Επίσης, εκτιμώ ότι, χρήσιμος θα ήταν ένας έλεγχος του ενδεχομένου, να αποτελούν οργανισμούς-βιτρίνες, προς διάπραξη εγκληματικών πράξεων, π.χ. λαθρεμπόριο ανθρώπινων οργάνων/ιστών, παράνομα ανθρώπινα πειράματα κ.λπ., τα εξής: πρώην Σ.Γ., πρώην Ε., πρώην Ά., πρώην Ά. Γ. (έχει πτωχεύσει), κέντρο H-H, U.K., Γ., ΝΚ Κ., σωματείο Ό.Μ., Π.ε.

Από το τέλος του Εμφυλίου και μετά, η Ελλάδα παραμένει μια Βρετανική αποικία.

Οι Βρετανοί, ίδρυσαν στην Ελλάδα παράνομη οργάνωση λαθρεμπορίου ανθρώπινων οργάνων/ιστών και παροχής ανθρώπινων πειραματόζωων.

Περιλαμβάνομαι στα θύματα αυτής της οργάνωσης. Όταν, το 1999 άρχισα να αντιλαμβάνομαι τα εγκλήματα που διαπράττονταν σε βάρος μου και το έκανα γνωστό στο κοινωνικό περιβάλλον μου τότε, υπέστην ακραία βασανιστήρια για τα οποία, μάταια, υπέβαλα μήνυση το 2013.

Το έτος 2006, ως εργαζόμενος οικονομολόγος, στην εταιρία Π., εκδήλωσα υψηλή επαγγελματική απόδοση τέτοια, η οποία τεκμηρίωνε ότι είμαι δημιουργικός και εχέφρων άνθρωπος και εξέθετε ως ψευδείς και εγκληματικές, υφιστάμενες νομικές πράξεις σε βάρος μου. Τότε, συνέλαβα επ´ αυτοφώρο το Δ.Κ. ς και κατέφυγα στο νοσοκομείο Αλεξανδρούπολης. Σύμφωνα με ενδείξεις, ο Κ. μου προκάλεσε μια μορφή, αργά εξελυσσόμενου, καρκίνου. Λόγω οικονομικής ανέχειας, οφειλόμενης στην πολιτική δίωξη που μου ασκείται, αδυνατώ να προβώ σε διαγνωστικές εξετάσεις ελέγχου της ύπαρξης καρκίνου, στον οργανισμό μου.

Εκ των ανωτέρω, σε συνδυασμό με τα συνημένα τεκμήρια, συνάγεται η ηθική αυτουργία είτε συνέργια, του Φ.Μ., στις δολοφονίες του Παναγιώτη Μπόμπολα και του Γιώργου Βουλγαρίδη καθώς επίσης και στην διάπραξη βασανιστηρίων, παράνομη κατακράτηση, δηλητηρίαση, υπεξαίρεση περιουσίας κ.λπ. εναντίον της Όλγας Μπόμπολα.

Η παράνομη οργάνωση λαθρεμπορίου οργάνων/ιστών και παράνομων ανθρώπινων πειραμάτων εκτιμώ ότι έχει καταστρέψει και συνεχίζει να καταστρέφει, πολλές Ελληνικές οικογένειες.

Είναι καθήκον σας να διώξετε αστυνομικά και ποινικά, τα μέλη αυτής της οργάνωσης και να σώσετε τα θύματά της όσο αυτά παραμένουν εν ζωή, όπως ο υποφαινόμενος και η οικογένειά μου. Παράλληλα, αποκαλύπτοντας τα εν λόγω εγκλήματα της Βρετανικής αποικιοκρατίας συμβάλετε στην πιθανή διάσωση της Ελλάδας από μεγάλα δεινά, ενώ μια ενδεχόμενη παράλλειψη, εκ μέρους σας, να τα αποκαλύψετε έγκαιρα αμφιβάλλω αν, ποτέ, θα σας συγχωρεθεί, από τους Έλληνες.

 

Με τιμή,

Χρήστος Μπούμπουλης

οικονομολόγος

 

Covert Government Investigations, using community policing. AKA Gang Stalking.

There are people in large metropolitan cities being stalked, harassed, mobbed, and followd around and many do not know why. Many are having to change jobs, move constantly, have their lives disrupted and they can't find help or assistance for what is happening to them. Many are stumbling in the dark and being mislead by those around them. I hope to the best of my ability to shed a little bit more light on what is happening and help others better start to find help and assistance.

I am looking for voluenteers who are willing to assist innocent people in major cities who are being targeted by covert government investigations. These investigations have been masked for the last few years online under the title of gang stalking.

This is what is happening and this is why these people need your assistance with getting in touch with the right channels. Many people who are going to be reading this article are probably a part of these programs and many people probably do not realise the damage they are doing to others. Here is some information that you need to know.

What is gang stalking?

Gang stalking is a modern day form of the Cointelpro program, that ran in the United States and in other countries under different names. Eg. In Canada it was called V.I.P.S. It's also a part of the New Community Based Policing efforts combined with the reemergence of Police Red Squads, which have been in existence on and off for close to a hundred years.

The new forms of these programs combines the organised stalking and mobbing of the targets of these programs that take place primarily in the targets community. What will happen is that files will be opened on targets of these harassment programs, and the State or officials of the State, such as the FBI, CIA, RCMP, CSIS, or local police will go around and tell the friend, family, co-workers, landlords, and community of the targeted individual at large is under investigation. They will say that the target is a terrorist, crazy, drug dealer, someone who needs to be watched. They will ask for, or in many cases force the corporation of the targeted individual till the target becomes increasingly more cut off from their sources of support, making it easier to harass and psychologically harm them over time.

" The new versions of these programs use the community based policing programs to help with the stalking and monitoring of the targeted individual, that is why the target will complain of being followed around in public by strangers they do not know. They are being followed around by the new eyes and ears of the state, their fellow citizens who for various reasons have decided to become informants for the state. This is happening in many democratic countries and cities.

Other names for Gangstalking

There are many names for this form of harassment, it would also now seem that Gang Stalking is a term that was invented as part of the disinformation campaign that the government is good at putting together while these harassment campaigns are running. Some of the more popular names for this form of harassment have been Cointelpro, Red Squads, and now with the new community based policing programs we have names coming up such as: Multi stalking, vengeance stalking, cause stalking, stalking by proxy, organised stalking, organised harassment, group stalking, community mobbing. These are the new names being given to a very old game, that is once again being played by the government on it's unsuspecting citizens.

Who gets targeted?

Gang stalking can happen to anyone, but it's being widely used on minorities, outspoken individuals, whistle blowers, dissidents, people who go up against large wealthy corporations, woman's groups, (single) women, anti-war proponents, and other innocent individuals. The majority of the targets are not aware this is happening to them and it continues for years. Even when a target moves, changes jobs, the harassment still continues. Every time the target moves, the government, or the local intelligence unit of the police will follow them around and start to spread the same lies, and slander to their new employers, coworkers, landlords, etc.

What are the goals of this campaign?

The goal is to isolate the target from all forms of support, so that the target can be set up in the future for arrest, institutionalisation, or forced suicide. Other goals of this harassment include sensitize the target to every day stimuli's as a form of control. These people also want to make the targets of this harassment vulnerable, they want to make them destitute. The secondary goals seem to be to make the target homeless, jobless, give them a breakdown, and the primary goals seems to be to drive the target to forced suicide, just like what they did with some of the targets of Cointelpro.

Source: https://www.meetup.com/pl-PL/WeAreChangeBoston/messages/4661043/

 

Consciousness on-off switch discovered deep in brain

 

By Helen Thomson

 

ONE moment you’re conscious, the next you’re not. For the first time, researchers have switched off consciousness by electrically stimulating a single brain area.

Scientists have been probing individual regions of the brain for over a century, exploring their function by zapping them with electricity and temporarily putting them out of action. Despite this, they have never been able to turn off consciousness – until now.

Although only tested in one person, the discovery suggests that a single area – the claustrum – might be integral to combining disparate brain activity into a seamless package of thoughts, sensations and emotions. It takes us a step closer to answering a problem that has confounded scientists and philosophers for millennia – namely how our conscious awareness arises.

Many theories abound but most agree that consciousness has to involve the integration of activity from several brain networks, allowing us to perceive our surroundings as one single unifying experience rather than isolated sensory perceptions.

One proponent of this idea was Francis Crick, a pioneering neuroscientist who earlier in his career had identified the structure of DNA. Just days before he died in July 2004, Crick was working on a paper that suggested our consciousness needs something akin to an orchestra conductor to bind all of our different external and internal perceptions together.

With his colleague Christof Koch, at the Allen Institute for Brain Science in Seattle, he hypothesised that this conductor would need to rapidly integrate information across distinct regions of the brain and bind together information arriving at different times. For example, information about the smell and colour of a rose, its name, and a memory of its relevance, can be bound into one conscious experience of being handed a rose on Valentine’s day.

The pair suggested that the claustrum – a thin, sheet-like structure that lies hidden deep inside the brain – is perfectly suited to this job (Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B, doi.org/djjw5m).

It now looks as if Crick and Koch were on to something. In a study published last week, Mohamad Koubeissiat the George Washington University in Washington DC and his colleagues describe how they managed to switch a woman’s consciousness off and on by stimulating her claustrum. The woman has epilepsy so the team were using deep brain electrodes to record signals from different brain regions to work out where her seizures originate. One electrode was positioned next to the claustrum, an area that had never been stimulated before.

When the team zapped the area with high frequency electrical impulses, the woman lost consciousness. She stopped reading and stared blankly into space, she didn’t respond to auditory or visual commands and her breathing slowed. As soon as the stimulation stopped, she immediately regained consciousness with no memory of the event. The same thing happened every time the area was stimulated during two days of experiments (Epilepsy and Behavior, doi.org/tgn).

To confirm that they were affecting the woman’s consciousness rather than just her ability to speak or move, the team asked her to repeat the word “house” or snap her fingers before the stimulation began. If the stimulation was disrupting a brain region responsible for movement or language she would have stopped moving or talking almost immediately. Instead, she gradually spoke more quietly or moved less and less until she drifted into unconsciousness. Since there was no sign of epileptic brain activity during or after the stimulation, the team is sure that it wasn’t a side effect of a seizure.

Koubeissi thinks that the results do indeed suggest that the claustrum plays a vital role in triggering conscious experience. “I would liken it to a car,” he says. “A car on the road has many parts that facilitate its movement – the gas, the transmission, the engine – but there’s only one spot where you turn the key and it all switches on and works together. So while consciousness is a complicated process created via many structures and networks – we may have found the key.”

“Consciousness is created via many structures and networks but we may have found the ignition key”

Awake but unconscious

Counter-intuitively, Koubeissi’s team found that the woman’s loss of consciousness was associated with increased synchrony of electrical activity, or brainwaves, in the frontal and parietal regions of the brain that participate in conscious awareness. Although different areas of the brain are thought to synchronise activity to bind different aspects of an experience together, too much synchronisation seems to be bad. The brain can’t distinguish one aspect from another, stopping a cohesive experience emerging.

Since similar brainwaves occur during an epileptic seizure, Koubeissi’s team now plans to investigate whether lower frequency stimulation of the claustrum could jolt them back to normal. It may even be worth trying for people in a minimally conscious state, he says. “Perhaps we could try to stimulate this region in an attempt to push them out of this state.”

“We could try to stimulate the region in a minimally conscious person to try to jolt them out of this state”

Anil Seth, who studies consciousness at the University of Sussex, UK, warns that we have to be cautious when interpreting behaviour from a single case study. The woman was missing part of her hippocampus, which was removed to treat her epilepsy, so she doesn’t represent a “normal” brain, he says.

However, he points out that the interesting thing about this study is that the person was still awake. “Normally when we look at conscious states we are looking at awake versus sleep, or coma versus vegetative state, or anaesthesia.” Most of these involve changes of wakefulness as well as consciousness but not this time, says Seth. “So even though it’s a single case study, it’s potentially quite informative about what’s happening when you selectively modulate consciousness alone.”

“Francis would have been pleased as punch,” says Koch, who was told by Crick’s wife that on his deathbed, Crick was hallucinating an argument with Koch about the claustrum and its connection to consciousness.

“Ultimately, if we know how consciousness is created and which parts of the brain are involved then we can understand who has it and who doesn’t,” says Koch. “Do robots have it? Do fetuses? Does a cat or dog or worm? This study is incredibly intriguing but it is one brick in a large edifice of consciousness that we’re trying to build.”

 

Source: https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22329762-700-consciousness-on-off-switch-discovered-deep-in-brain/

 

Τελευταία Ενημέρωση στις Πέμπτη, 27 Αύγουστος 2020 01:02