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Human Rights' Court

 

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Open Letter to Andrew Parker, MI5

  

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My father's death

 

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Dry mini submarine

 

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Charlatans

 

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Foreign intervention in Greece?

 

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Duty PDF Εκτύπωση E-mail
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Deutsche Militärverteidigung - Bundeswehr
Συντάχθηκε απο τον/την Χρήστος Μπούμπουλης (Christos Boumpoulis)   
Τρίτη, 24 Σεπτέμβριος 2019 20:20

Dresden – Old Town

 

Duty

 

Duty

A duty (from "due" meaning "that which is owing"; Old French: deu, did, past participle of devoir; Latin: debere, debitum, whence "debt") is a commitment or expectation to perform some action in general or if certain circumstances arise. A duty may arise from a system of ethics or morality, especially in an honor culture. Many duties are created by law, sometimes including a codified punishment or liability for non-performance. Performing one's duty may require some sacrifice of self-interest.

Cicero, an early Roman philosopher who discusses duty in his work “On Duty", suggests that duties can come from four different sources:

as a result of being a human

as a result of one's particular place in life (one's family, one's country, one's job)

as a result of one's character

as a result of one's own moral expectations for oneself

The specific duties imposed by law or culture vary considerably, depending on jurisdiction, religion, and social norms.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duty

 

Euclid's Definitions, Postulates, and the First 30 Propositions of Book I

 

Definitions

1. A point is that which has no part.

2. A line is breadthless length.

3. The extremities of a line are points.

4. A straight line is a line which lies evenly with the points on itself.

5. A surface is that which has length and breadth only.

6. The extremities of a surface are lines.

7. A plane surface is a surface which lies evenly with the straight lines on itself.

8. A plane angle is the inclination to one another of two lines in a plane which meet one another and do not lie in a straight line.

9. And when the lines containing the angle are straight, the angle is called rectilineal.

10. When a straight line set up on a straight line makes the adjacent angles equal to one another, each of the equal angles is right, and the straight line standing on the other is called perpendicular to that on which it stands.

11. An obtuse angle is an angle greater than a right angle.

12. An acute angle is an angle less than a right angle.

13. A boundary is that which is an extremity of anything.

14. A figure is that which is contained by any boundary or boundaries.

15. A circle is a plane figure contained by one line such that all the straight lines falling upon it from one point among those lying within the figure are equal to one another.

16. And the point is called the centre of the circle.

17. A diameter of the circle is any straight line drawn through the centre and terminated in both directions by the circumference of the circle, and such a straight line also bisects the circle.

18. A semicircle is the figure contained by the diameter and the circumference cut off by it. And the centre of the semicircle is the same as that of the circle.

19. Rectilineal figures are those which are contained by straight lines, trilateral figures being those contained by three, quadrilateral those contained by four, and multilateral those contained by more than four straight lines.

20. Of trilateral figures, an equilateral triangle is that which has three sides equal, an isosceles triangle that which has two of its sides alone equal, and a scalene triangle that which has its three sides unequal.

21. Further, of trilateral figures, a right-angled triangle is that which has a right angle, an obtuse-angled triangle that which has an obtuse angle, and an acute-angled triangle that which has its three angles acute.

22. Of quadrilateral figures, a square is that which is both equilateral and right-angled; an oblong that which is right-angled but not equilateral; a rhombus that which is equilateral but not right-angled; and a rhomboid that which has its opposite sides and angles equal to one another but is neither equilateral nor right-angled. And let quadrilaterals other than these be called trapezia.

23. Parallel straight lines are straight lines which, being in the same plane and being produced indefinitely in both directions, do not meet one another in either direction.

 

The Postulates

1. To draw a straight line from any point to any point.

2. To produce a finite straight line continuously in a straight line.

3. To describe a circle with any centre and distance.

4. That all right angles are equal to one another.

5. That, if a straight line falling on two straight lines makes the interior angles on the same side less than two right angles, the two straight lines, if produced indefinitely, meet on that side on which are the angles less than the two right angles.

 

The Common Notions

1. Things which are equal to the same thing are also equal to one another.

2. If equals be added to equals, the wholes are equal.

3. If equals be subtracted from equals, the remainders are equal.

4. Things which coincide with one another are equal to one another.

5. The whole is greater than the part.

 

The First 30 Propositions of Book I

1. On a given finite straight line, to construct an equilateral triangle.

2. To place at a given point (as an extremity) a straight line equal to a given straight line.

3. Given two unequal straight lines, to cut off from the greater a straight line line equal to the less.

4. If two triangles have the two sides equal to two sides, respectively, and have the angles contained by the equal straight lines equal, they will also have the base equal to the base, the triangle will be equal to the triangle, and the remaining angles will be equal to the remaining angles, respectively, namely, those which the equal sides subtend.

5. In isosceles triangles, the angles at the base are equal to one another, and, if the equal straight lines be produced further, the angles under the base will be equal to one another.

6. If in a triangle two angles be equal to one another, the sides which subtend the equal angles will also be equal to one another.

7. Given two straight lines constructed on a straight line (from its extremities) and meeting in a point, there cannot be constructed on the same line (from its extremities), and on the same side of it, two other straight lines meeting in another point and equal to the former two, respectively, namely, each to that which has the same extremity with it.

8. If two triangles have the two sides equal to two sides, respectively, and have also the base equal to the base, they will also have the angles equal which are contained by the equal straight lines.

9. To bisect a given rectilinear angle.

10. To bisect a given finite straight line.

11. To draw a straight line at right angles to a given straight line from a given point on it.

12. To a given infinite straight line, from a given point which is not on it, to draw a perpendicular straight line.

13. If a straight line set up on a straight line make angles, it will make either two right angles or angles equal to two right angles.

14. If with any straight line, and at a point on it, two straight lines not lying on the same side make the adjacent angles equal to two right angles, the two straight lines will be in a straight line with one another.

15. If two straight lines cut one another, they make the vertical angles equal to one another.

16. In any triangle if one of the sides be produced, the exterior angle is greater than either of the interior and opposite angles.

17. In any triangle two angles taken together in any manner are less than two right angles.

18. In any triangle the greater side subtends the greater angle.

19. In any triangle the greater angle is subtended by the greater side.

20. In any triangle two sides taken together in any manner are greater than the remaining one.

21. If on one of the sides of a triangle, from its extremities, there be constructed two straight lines meeting within the triangle, the straight lines so constructed will be less than the remaining two sides of the triangle, but will contain a greater angle.

22. Out of three straight lines, which are equal to three given straight lines, to construct a triangle: thus it is necessary that two of the straight lines taken together in any manner should be greater than the remaining one.

23. On a given straight line and at a point on it, to construct a rectilineal angle equal to a given rectilineal angle.

24. If two triangles have the two sides equal to two sides, respectively, but have the one of the angles contained by the equal straight lines greater than the other, they will also have the base greater than the base.

25. If two triangles have the two sides equal to two sides, respectively, but have the base greater than the base, they will also have the one of the angles contained by the equal straight lines greater than the other.

26. If two triangles have the two angles equal to two angles, respectively, and one side equal to one side, namely, either the side adjoining the equal angles, or that subtending one of the equal angles, they will also have the remaining sides equal to the remaining sides and the remaining angle to the remaining angle.

27. If a straight line falling on two straight lines makes the alternate angles equal to one another, the straight lines will be parallel to one another.

28. If a straight line falling on two straight lines makes the exterior angle equal to the interior and opposite angle on the same side, or the interior angles on the same side equal to two right angles, the straight lines will be parallel to one another.

29. A straight line falling on parallel straight lines makes the alternate angles equal to one another, the exterior angle equal to the interior and opposite angle, and the interior angles on the same side equal to two right angles.

30. Straight lines parallel to the same straight line are also parallel to one another.

Source: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/bbm%3A978-1-4757-3831-5%2F1.pdf

 

Triangle Classification

The basic elements of any triangle are its sides and angles. Triangles are classified depending on relative sizes of their elements.

 

As regard their sides, triangles may be

 

Scalene (all sides are different)

Isosceles (two sides are equal)

Equilateral (all three sides are equal)

And as regard their angles, triangles may be

 

Acute (all angles are acute)

Right (one angle is right)

Obtuse (one angle is obtuse)

Equiangular (all angles are equal)

Source: https://www.cut-the-knot.org/triangle/Triangles.shtml

 

Duty is duty.

Some people enjoy the benefit of the choice; others do not.

For example, some people may choose whether they shall fulfill their duty or not; and others, suffer on a hospital’s bed of pain the consequences of the contemporary settler-colonialism without having any choice with regard to their ordeal.

For the men of duty, according to my opinion, it is imperative that they maintain a clear, agile, efficient and effective mind. Therefore, continuous mind training is inevitable.

Concluding, I would certainly expect, from the men of duty, to memorise, word-by-word the above Geometry theory, within the next 72 hours and to make shure that they maintain this memorisation for an indefinite period of time. From now on, the jokes should be considered as elements of the past; and very hard training is starting.

 

Christos Boumpoulis

economist

 

The West German Cancer Center - Cancer therapy/oncology in Essen (English)

www.youtube.com/watch?v=cA6xqAR78Ak

 

Note: The photo was found here, https://www.dresden.de/en/tourism/attractions/sights/old-town.php

Τελευταία Ενημέρωση στις Τρίτη, 24 Σεπτέμβριος 2019 20:43