Message to, Bundeswehr, Luftwaffe and Marine 1312018 
Deutsche Militärverteidigung  Bundeswehr  
Συντάχθηκε απο τον/την Χρήστος Μπούμπουλης (Christos Boumpoulis)  
Σάββατο, 13 Ιανουάριος 2018 17:48  
Message to, Bundeswehr, Luftwaffe and Marine 1312018 Earlier, in my imagination, I made the following story: If I was drinking a German coffee together with three military officers, each from, the Bundeswehr, the Luftwaffe and the Marine, correspondingly, in a nice coffee shop, in Stuttgart, I would say to them the followings:
One of the most important traits of the German Armed Forces members remains their ability to survive under very difficult circumstances. This ability, according to the best of my knowledge, is enormously upgraded by gaining fluency in the domains of, probability theory and development of electronics applications. The members of our Armed Forces, with no exception, should, according to my opinion, develop, as soon as possible, advanced knowledge of those two domains and consequently, a long sequence of very difficult military exercises may, soon, follow. Deutschland über alles, Christos Boumpoulis economist Note: The photo was found here, https://www.bundeswehr.de/resource/resource/MzEzNTM4MmUzMzMyMmUzMTM1MzMyZT M2MzIzMDMwMzAzMDMwMzAzMDY5NzM3MTMwMzQzOTczNzYyMDIwMjAyMDIw/ image_large.jpg, Appendix Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability. Although there are several different probability interpretations, probability theory treats the concept in a rigorous mathematical manner by expressing it through a set of axioms. Typically these axioms formalise probability in terms of a probability space, which assigns a measure taking values between 0 and 1, termed the probability measure, to a set of outcomes called the sample space. Any specified subset of these outcomes is called an event. Central subjects in probability theory include discrete and continuous random variables, probability distributions, and stochastic processes, which provide mathematical abstractions of nondeterministic or uncertain processes or measured quantities that may either be single occurrences or evolve over time in a random fashion. Although it is not possible to perfectly predict random events, much can be said about their behaviour. Two major results in probability theory describing such behaviour are the law of large numbers and the central limit theorem. As a mathematical foundation for statistics, probability theory is essential to many human activities that involve quantitative analysis of data.[1] Methods of probability theory also apply to descriptions of complex systems given only partial knowledge of their state, as in statistical mechanics. A great discovery of twentiethcentury physics was the probabilistic nature of physical phenomena at atomic scales, described in quantum mechanics. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Probability_theory] Introduction to Probability Theory
www.youtube.com/watch?v=e7dYq9fORU
In probability theory and statistics, Bayes’ theorem (alternatively Bayes’ law or Bayes' rule) describes the probability of an event, based on prior knowledge of conditions that might be related to the event. For example, if cancer is related to age, then, using Bayes’ theorem, a person’s age can be used to more accurately assess the probability that they have cancer, compared to the assessment of the probability of cancer made without knowledge of the person's age. One of the many applications of Bayes' theorem is Bayesian inference, a particular approach to statistical inference. When applied, the probabilities involved in Bayes' theorem may have different probability interpretations. With the Bayesian probability interpretation the theorem expresses how a subjective degree of belief should rationally change to account for availability of related evidence. Bayesian inference is fundamental to Bayesian statistics. Bayes’ theorem is named after Reverend Thomas Bayes (/beɪz/; 1701–1761), who first provided an equation that allows new evidence to update beliefs in his An Essay towards solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances (1763). It was further developed by PierreSimon Laplace, who first published the modern formulation in his 1812 "Théorie analytique des probabilités". Sir Harold Jeffreys put Bayes’ algorithm and Laplace's formulation on an axiomatic basis. Jeffreys wrote that Bayes' theorem "is to the theory of probability what the Pythagorean theorem is to geometry".[1] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayes%27_theorem] The Bayesian Trap
www.youtube.com/watch?v=R13BD8qKeTg Basic Tools & Equipment in Electronics Soldering Tools To build permanent, reliable circuits, you need to solder connections between wires and components. A soldering iron is a pencilshaped tool which uses a heating element to bring the tip to between 500 and 650 F, hot enough to melt electrical solder. Soldering irons range in price from about $10 to over $200; basic models works well for occasional use. Higherpriced examples have convenient builtin stands and temperature regulation. Desoldering tools, such as pumps and copper braid wicks, allow you to clean up poor solder joints and remove solder during repairs. A desoldering pump is a simple hand tool which draws solder away with a quick vacuum action. Multimeter A multimeter is an electronic tester which measures voltage, current, resistance and other aspects of electricity and circuits. Most are pocketsized, run on batteries and have digital displays. A multimeter has a knob, which selects the measurement function, and a pair of test leads for connecting the device to a circuit. Although you can spend hundreds of dollars on a fullfeatured, professional multimeter, most are well under $100, and a basic, nofrills model can even be purchased for approximately $10. Hand Tools Small hand tools such as longnose pliers and screwdrivers come in handy for electronics projects. Pliers bend and crimp wires, hold hot parts during soldering and help you set delicate components into place. Screw and nut drivers are essential for fastening circuit boards to project boxes and disassembling equipment for repairs. Wire strippers remove insulation from wires and cut them to different lengths. Breadboard A breadboard is a flat plastic base with a matrix of holes. When you insert wires or component leads in holes that share the same column, they are connected; otherwise, they remain electrically separate. Using a breadboard, you can build prototype versions of sophisticated electronic circuits simply by plugging wires, transistors, resistors, capacitors and other devices into the holes. Because the connections are not permanent, you can easily remove the components when you're done with the circuit and build another; breadboards are fully reusable. Oscilloscope Although most beginning hobbyists do not need an oscilloscope, it is handy for learning electronics and troubleshooting circuits. An oscilloscope displays timevarying signals such as voltage waveform patterns on a screen, helping you visualize circuit functions. Technicians and engineers who work with electronics professionally use oscilloscopes on a daily basis. Basic models run about $300; sophisticated units cost up to several thousands of dollars. Power Supply A power supply provides a precise and stable source of direct current to power electronic circuits. It converts 120V AC electricity from a standard outlet into a DC voltage you can set with a front panel control. As with oscilloscopes, few beginners have DC power supplies on their workbench; moderately advanced hobbyists who frequently work on electronic projects find them valuable, and they are indispensable for professionals. [https://itstillworks.com/basictoolsequipmentelectronics1630.html] Basic Tools Required for Electronic PCB Repairs
www.youtube.com/watch?v=9MRDpudSfsY
Basic Soldering Technique
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AqvHogekDI4
The Most Common Basic Electronic Components These are the most common components:
Resistor I didn’t understand the resistor in the beginning. It didn’t seem to do anything! It was just there, consuming power. But with time, I learned that the resistor is actually extremely useful. You’ll see resistors everywhere. And as the name suggests, they resist the current. But you are probably wondering: What do I use it for? You use the resistor to control the voltages and the currents in your circuit. Some basic electronics components: LED in series with a battery and a resistor How? By using Ohm’s law. Let’s say you have a 9V battery and you want to turn on a LightEmitting Diode (LED). If you connect the battery directly to the LED, LOTS of current will flow through the LED! Much more that the LED can handle. So the LED will become very hot and burn out after a short amount of time. But – if you put a resistor in series with the LED, you can control how much current is going through the LED. In this case we call it a current limiting resistor.
Capacitor Electrolytic capacitor You can think of a capacitor as a battery with very low capacity. You can charge and discharge it just like a battery. The capacitor is often used to introduce a timedelay in a circuit. For example to blink a light. It’s commonly used for removing noise, or making the supply voltage of a circuit more stable. There are many capacitor types. Most commonly, we divide them into polarized and nonpolarized capacitors.
Light Emitting Diode (LED) A Light Emitting Diode – or LED for short – is a component that can give light. We use LEDs to give a visual feedback from our circuit. For example to show that the circuit has power. But, you can also used them to make cool lightshow circuits. You see these components everywhere: In your laptop, on your mobile phone, on your camera, in your car. And you can find many different types of LEDs. A very common circuit to build as a beginner is the blinking light circuit.
Transistor This is probably the hardest of the basic electronic components to understand. But don’t worry, it’s not that hard. A simple way is to look at the transistor as a switch controlled by an electrical signal. If you put about 0.7 volts between the base and the emitter, you turn it on. Note that this is true for NPN transistors. There are also other types, but worry about these later. But, instead of having just two states (ON or OFF), it can also be “a bit on” by controlling the current that goes through its base. A bit of current on the base produces a current of maybe 100 times more (depending on the transistor) through the Collector and Emitter. We can use this effect to build amplifiers.
Inductor Inductors are a bit weird. It’s just a coil of wire – and you can make one yourself by making some loops out of a wire. Sometimes they’re wound around a metal core of some sort. They are often used in filters. I rarely use one actually, but when I wrote that in my article “What is an inductor?” a friend of mine reacted. See his response at the end of that article.
Integrated Circuit An Integrated Circuit (IC) consists of many basic electronic components. It’s nothing mysterious or magical. It’s just an electronic circuit that has been shrunk to fit inside a chip. It could be an amplifier, it could be a microprocessor, it could be a USB to serial converter… It could be anything! To figure out what a specific IC does, you can read its datasheet. [www.buildelectroniccircuits.com/basicelectroniccomponents/]
A simple guide to electronic components.
www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Maq5IyHSuc


Τελευταία Ενημέρωση στις Δευτέρα, 14 Μάιος 2018 19:29 