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7/3/2017, 20:00

European Dissidents ALARM

 

Zeppelin: Beyond Gravity

 

Foreign intervention in Greece?

 

Η ανελεύθερη Ελλάδα

 

Η Ελλάδα καταγώγιο;

 

Αν.Επ. Π. Παυλόπουλο

  

Intangible prisons

 

Plausible deniability

 

Images of German w & s

 

Crimes against Humanity

 

"Chimera" - "Bellerophon"

 

pr. Donald Trump

 

  

Legal Notice 87

 

Βδέλλες, αποικιοκρατικές

 

Being a German

 

Legal Notice 84

 

Dirty colonial methods

 

Georgi Markov, BG - KGB

 

Samples of Barbarity

 

Ελλάδα - αποκόλληση

 

Έλληνες, στο έλεος...

 

Harvester's log 16/3/17

 

 

Legal Notice 66

 

Execrable

 

Legal Notice 62

 

  

My story

 

  

Aggression?

 

  

Η Εστία μου

 

  

Why so untidy?

 

  

Αποικιοκρατία

 

  

Εξόντωση Ελλήνων αντιφρονούντων;

 

  

Ζήτημα εμπιστοσύνης

 

  

Μεθοδικότητα

 

  

Ανοικτή Επιστολή πρέσβη ΗΠΑ

Αφορμή, U2RIT vs Ελλάδα;

Βιοηθική

A request to U2RIT

Colonial aggression - 2

Open Letter to UN S.G.

Open Letter to p.C. & p. O.

Δήλωση πρόθεσης επαναπατρισμού

 

Ο "εφιάλτης" της Νυρεμβέργης

Συλλογή Φωτογραφιών

Αίτημα προστασίας, προς Ιταλία

Chroma key, background removal

Science and Ethics

Να συμβάλει και η U2RIT

Θα ξαναφτιάξουν πολλές φορές Άουσβιτς και Zyclon B

 

Split-Screen effect

Η Ζωή είναι Ωραία.

Βόρεια Κορέα

Λευτεριά στους Έλληνες, εξανα- γκαστικά "Εξαφανισμένους"

 

Μυστικές δίκες;

Trustworthiness

Πολιτισμό, ή, απληστία;

Ακραία Στυγνότητα

Η Τέχνη της Επιβίωσης

Political Asylum 3

Επιστροφή στις ρίζες

The Human Cost of Torture

An urgent appeal for solidarity

More obvious than the Sun

Western "culture"

Political Asylum

Έννομη Προστασία

Μια μήνυση που εγείρει ερωτηματικά

 

 

 

Honor your father...

Noise

Creative Greeks

A pair of Dictatorships

Charisma: colonialism's enemy number one PDF Εκτύπωση E-mail
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Συνεννόηση για Δράση - Απόψεις
Συντάχθηκε απο τον/την Χρήστος Μπούμπουλης (Christos Boumpoulis)   
Κυριακή, 17 Σεπτέμβριος 2017 14:48

The Song Was Written Impossible For Human But She Nailed It. Charismatic Jane Zhang!

www.youtube.com/watch?v=SBenttZUT7A

 

Judges Thought She Is Too Young To Handle This Song,

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=irm3DxHasRg

 

Judges stopped her because they couldn't believe it's her real voice!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8etPN7Or8ZE

 

Shakira SHOCKED by fan singing her song! AMAZING THE VOICE AUDITION

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-OFg-dAQ_V8

 

Best Auditions America's Got Talent 2017

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RAebyhdmkY0

 

Charisma: colonialism's enemy number one

 

The term charisma (/kəˈrɪzmə/; pl. charismata, adj. charismatic) has two senses:[1]

  1. compelling attractiveness or charm that can inspire devotion in others

  2. a divinely conferred power or talent

In discussing sense 1, scholars in political science, psychology, and management reserve the term for a type of leadership seen as extraordinary;[2][3][not in citation given][4][5][page needed][6][need quotation to verify][7] in these fields, the term "charisma" is used[by whom?] to describe a particular type of leader who uses "values-based, symbolic, and emotion-laden leader signaling".[8][need quotation to verify]

In some theological usages, the term appears as charism, with a meaning the same as sense 2.[9]

Since the 1950s, the term has become widely[quantify] used, with varying meanings, in religion, the social sciences, the media, and throughout Western societies.

Etymology

The English term charisma is from the Greek χάρισμα (khárisma), which means "favor freely given" or "gift of grace". The term and its plural χαρίσματα (charismata) derive from χάρις (charis), which means "grace". Some derivatives from that root (including "grace") have similar meanings to the modern sense of personality charisma, such as "filled with attractiveness or charm", "kindness", "to bestow a favor or service", or "to be favored or blessed".[10][11] Moreover, the ancient Greek dialect widely used in Roman times employed these terms without the connotations found in modern religious usage.[12] Ancient Greeks applied personality charisma to their gods; for example, attributing charm, beauty, nature, human creativity or fertility to goddesses they called Charites (Χάριτες).

Theologians and social scientists have expanded and modified the original Greek meaning into the two distinct senses above. For ease of reference, we will call the first sense personality charisma and the second divinely conferred charisma.

The meaning of charisma has become greatly diffused from its original divinely conferred meaning, and even from the personality charisma meaning in modern English dictionaries, which reduces to a mixture of charm and status. John Potts, who has extensively analyzed the term's history, sums up meanings beneath this diffused common usage:

Contemporary charisma maintains, however, the irreducible character ascribed to it by Weber: it retains a mysterious, elusive quality. Media commentators regularly describe charisma as the "X-factor". …The enigmatic character of charisma also suggests a connection – at least to some degree – to the earliest manifestations of charisma as a spiritual gift.[13]

History

Divinely conferred charisma

The Hebrew Bible and the Christian Bible record the development of divinely conferred charisma. In the Hebrew text the idea of charismatic leadership is generally signaled by the use of the noun hen (favor) or the verb hanan (to show favor). The Greek term for charisma (grace or favor), and its root charis (grace) replaced the Hebrew terms in the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible (the 3rd century BC Septuagint). Throughout, "the paradigmatic image of the charismatic hero is the figure who has received God's favor".[14] In other words, divinely conferred charisma applied to highly revered figures.

Thus, Eastern Mediterranean Jews in the 1st century CE had notions of charis and charisma that embraced the range of meanings found in Greek culture and the spiritual meanings from the Hebrew Bible.[15] From this linguistic legacy of fused cultures, in 1 Corinthians, Paul the Apostle introduced the meaning that the Holy Spirit bestowed charism and charismata, "the gift of God's grace", upon individuals or groups. For Paul, "[t]here is a clear distinction between charisma and charis; charisma is the direct result of divine charis or grace".[16][17]

In the New Testament Epistles, Paul refers to charisma or its plural charismata seven times in 1 Corinthians, written in Koine (or common) Greek around 54 CE. He elaborates on his concepts with six references in Romans (c. 56). He makes 3 individual references in 2 Corinthians (c. 56), 1 Timothy, and 2 Timothy (c. 62 – c. 67). The seventeenth and only other mention of charisma is in 1 Peter.[12][18][19]

The gospels, written in the late first century, apply divinely conferred charisma to revered figures. Examples are accounts of Jesus' baptism and of his transfiguration, in which disciples see him as radiant with light, appearing together with Moses and Elijah. Another example is Gabriel's greeting to Mary as "full of grace".[14] In these and other instances early Christians designated certain individuals as possessing "spiritual gifts", and these gifts included "the ability to penetrate the neighbour to the bottom of his heart and spirit and to recognize whether he is dominated by a good or by an evil spirit and the gift to help him to freedom from his demon".[20]

Believers characterized their revered religious figures as having "a higher perfection … a special Charisma".[20] Then, with the establishment of the Christian Church, "the old charismatic gifts and free offerings were transformed into a hierarchical sacerdotal system".[21] The focus on the institution rather than divinely inspired individuals increasingly dominated religious thought and life, and that focus went unchanged for centuries.[22]

Additional changes began in the 17th century when church leaders, notably in the Latin tradition, accented "individual gifts [and] particular talents imparted by God or the Holy Spirit". The 19th century brought an increasing shift in emphasis toward individual and spiritual aspects of charisma; Protestant and some Catholic theologians narrowed the concept to superlative, out-of-the-ordinary, and virtuoso gifts. Simultaneously, the term became alienated from the much wider meaning that early Christians had attached to it.[23] Still, the narrowed term projected back to the earlier period "A systematically reflected and highly differentiated understanding of charisma was often unconsciously infused into the Scriptures and writings of the church fathers, so that these texts were no longer read through the eyes of the authors".[24]

These dialectic meanings influenced notable changes in Pentecostalism in the late 19th century, and charismatic movements in some mainline churches in the mid-20th century. The discussion in the 21st Century Religion section explores what charisma means in these and other religious groups.

Personality charisma

The basis for modern secular usage comes from German sociologist Max Weber. He discovered the term in the work of Rudolph Sohm, a German church historian whose 1892 Kirchenrecht[25] was immediately recognized in Germany as an epoch-making work. It also stimulated a debate between Sohm and leading theologians and religion scholars, which lasted more than twenty years and stimulated a rich polemical literature.[26] The debate and literature had made charisma a popular term when Weber used it in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism and in his Sociology of Religion. Perhaps because he assumed that readers already understood the idea, Weber's early writings lacked definition or explanation of the concept. In the collection of his works, Economy and Society edited by his wife, he identified the term as a prime example of action he labeled "value-rational," in distinction from and opposition to action he labeled "Instrumentally rational."[27] Because he applied meanings for charisma similar to Sohm, who had affirmed the purely charismatic nature of early Christianity,[28] Weber's charisma would have coincided with the divinely conferred charisma sense defined above in Sohm's work.

Weber introduced the personality charisma sense when he applied charisma to designate a form of authority. To explain charismatic authority he developed his classic definition:

Charisma is a certain quality of an individual personality by virtue of which he is set apart from ordinary men and treated as endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities. These as such are not accessible to the ordinary person, but are regarded as of divine origin or as exemplary, and on the basis of them the individual concerned is treated as a leader.[29]

Here Weber extends the concept of charisma beyond supernatural to superhuman and even to exceptional powers and qualities. He then indicates that followers endow the individual with powers, regard these powers as of divine origin or just exemplary, and treat him as a leader. In another passage, Weber emphasizes that "the recognition on the part of those subject to authority" is decisive for the validity of charisma.[30] In other words, charisma can only be that which believers recognize as charismatic in those they treat as such.[31]

Weber died in 1920 leaving "disordered, fragmentary manuscripts without even the guidance of a plan or table of the proposed contents". One unfinished manuscript contained his above quoted definition of charisma.[32] It took over a quarter century for his work to be translated into English.[33] With regard to charisma, Weber's formulations are generally regarded as having revived the concept from its deep theological obscurity.[34] However, even with the admirable translations and prefaces of his entire works, many scholars have found Weber's formulations ambiguous. For the past half-century they have debated the meaning of many Weberian concepts, including the meaning of charisma, the role of followers, and the degree of a supernatural component.[32][35][36][37][38][39] Although sociologists have been most active in applying Weber's ideas, researchers in management and organizational behavior including John Antonakis and his colleagues, have reignited interest in charisma with respect to defining the term in unambiguous ways, finding ways to experimentally manipulate charisma, and to estimate the causal effects of charisma on performance outcomes in work and political settings.[8][40]

[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charisma]

 

Barry Schwartz: Our loss of wisdom

www.youtube.com/watch?v=lA-zdh_bQBo

 

Civilization, from a certain perspective, is the willing and peaceful equalization of bliss, between, the charismatic part, of our human kind, and the rest, of our human kind.

The absurd identification between, bliss and material wealth, may lead the most vicious part of our human kind to rise a, quasi, total war against the materializations of charisma.

Simultaneously, as, within the authoritarian social structures, any materialization of charisma, beneath the top part of those structures, would dissolve the authoritarian world view (weltbild) and would evaporate the credentials of authoritarian leadership, authoritarianism may has, also, risen a, quasi, total war against the materializations of charisma.

Ordinary people dislike undertaking their own personal responsibility. Consequently, they jeopardize their participation to the social phenomenon of Civilization.

During our days, the most part of our personal identity, meaning, personality, may has, involuntarily, become instrumental.

What may has been left intact, from what we, truly, are, is Kindness.

Upon our inner Kindness, from what it seems, the human Civilization, currently, is being leaned on, and nowhere else.

 

Christos Boumpoulis

economist

 

 

Τελευταία Ενημέρωση στις Δευτέρα, 18 Σεπτέμβριος 2017 15:56