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7/3/2017, 20:00

European Dissidents ALARM

 

Zeppelin: Beyond Gravity

 

Foreign intervention in Greece?

 

Η ανελεύθερη Ελλάδα

 

Η Ελλάδα καταγώγιο;

 

Αν.Επ. Π. Παυλόπουλο

  

Intangible prisons

 

Plausible deniability

 

Images of German w & s

 

Crimes against Humanity

 

"Chimera" - "Bellerophon"

 

pr. Donald Trump

 

  

Legal Notice 87

 

Βδέλλες, αποικιοκρατικές

 

Being a German

 

Legal Notice 84

 

Dirty colonial methods

 

Georgi Markov, BG - KGB

 

Samples of Barbarity

 

Ελλάδα - αποκόλληση

 

Έλληνες, στο έλεος...

 

Harvester's log 16/3/17

 

 

Legal Notice 66

 

Execrable

 

Legal Notice 62

 

  

My story

 

  

Aggression?

 

  

Η Εστία μου

 

  

Why so untidy?

 

  

Αποικιοκρατία

 

  

Εξόντωση Ελλήνων αντιφρονούντων;

 

  

Ζήτημα εμπιστοσύνης

 

  

Μεθοδικότητα

 

  

Ανοικτή Επιστολή πρέσβη ΗΠΑ

Αφορμή, U2RIT vs Ελλάδα;

Βιοηθική

A request to U2RIT

Colonial aggression - 2

Open Letter to UN S.G.

Open Letter to p.C. & p. O.

Δήλωση πρόθεσης επαναπατρισμού

 

Ο "εφιάλτης" της Νυρεμβέργης

Συλλογή Φωτογραφιών

Αίτημα προστασίας, προς Ιταλία

Chroma key, background removal

Science and Ethics

Να συμβάλει και η U2RIT

Θα ξαναφτιάξουν πολλές φορές Άουσβιτς και Zyclon B

 

Split-Screen effect

Η Ζωή είναι Ωραία.

Βόρεια Κορέα

Λευτεριά στους Έλληνες, εξανα- γκαστικά "Εξαφανισμένους"

 

Μυστικές δίκες;

Trustworthiness

Πολιτισμό, ή, απληστία;

Ακραία Στυγνότητα

Η Τέχνη της Επιβίωσης

Political Asylum 3

Επιστροφή στις ρίζες

The Human Cost of Torture

An urgent appeal for solidarity

More obvious than the Sun

Western "culture"

Political Asylum

Έννομη Προστασία

Μια μήνυση που εγείρει ερωτηματικά

 

 

 

Honor your father...

Noise

Creative Greeks

A pair of Dictatorships

Internet Domain Names System's Asymmetric Governance PDF Εκτύπωση E-mail
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Συντάχθηκε απο τον/την Χρήστος Μπούμπουλης (Christos Boumpoulis)   
Δευτέρα, 07 Αύγουστος 2017 20:29

 jon-postel.jpg

 

Internet Domain Names System's Asymmetric Governance

 

The one who controls the Internet's Domain Name System (DNS), whoever he might be, possesses the technical capability to misdirect, any specific Internet's single user, who attempts to gain access at a specific web page, to a corresponding, rogue and/or adulterated, web page; without, this user, being able to even notice this misdirection.

The involuntary access of the, rogue, and/or, adulterated, web page could cause, either, misinformation to show on the display screen of the user's computer, or, malicious/illegitimate data files to become stored, unnoticed, into its memory/hard-disk-drive.

A, potentially, unsuspected and misinformed and/or unsuspected and involuntary currier of malicious/illegitimate data files, Internet's user, theoretically, could get into unjust troubles of, almost, infinite kinds.

The vulnerability of, each and every, Internet user, from a potential misconduct, on behalf of those, whoever they might be, which control the DNS, remains undeniable and unavoidable; and for this reason, whoever might, undertake and exercises, the DNS's governance, without, voluntarily, providing, complete transparency and complete accountability, to the Internet's users, he should, probably, become burdened by, moral and legal, consequences. The human life is sacred and not an, eligible for bargaining, trading and consuming, commercial commodity.

 

Christos Boumpoulis

economist

 

P.S.: According to my knowledge, Jon Postel tried, honestly, to protect the Internet users from the arbitrary governance that powerful States could exercise. 

 

Appendix

 

US ready to 'hand over' the internet's naming system

The US has confirmed it is finally ready to cede power of the internet’s naming system, ending the almost 20-year process to hand over a crucial part of the internet's governance.

The Domain Naming System, DNS, is one of the internet’s most important components.

It pairs the easy-to-remember web addresses - like bbc.com - with their relevant servers. Without DNS, you’d only be able to access websites by typing in its IP address, a series of numbers such as "194.66.82.10".

More by circumstance than intention, the US has always had ultimate say over how the DNS is controlled - but not for much longer.

It will give up its power fully to Icann - the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers - a non-profit organisation.

The terms of the change were agreed upon in 2014, but it wasn’t until now that the US said it was finally satisfied that Icann was ready to make the change.

Icann will get the “keys to the kingdom”, as one expert put it, on 1 October 2016. From that date, the US will lose its dominant voice - although Icann will remain in Los Angeles.

If anyone can, Icann?

Users of the web will not notice any difference - that’s because Icann has essentially been doing the job for years anyway.

But it’s a move that has been fiercely criticised by some US politicians as opening the door to the likes of China and Russia to meddle with a system that has always been “protected” by the US.

"The proposal will significantly increase the power of foreign governments over the Internet,” warned a letter signed by several Republican senators, including former Presidential hopeful, Ted Cruz.

Whether you think those fears are justified depends on your confidence in the ability of Icann to do its job.

 

With DNS web users are able to use easy-to-remember addresses

 

It was created in 1998 to take over the task of assigning web addresses. Until that point, that job was handled by one man - Jon Postel. He was known to many as the “god of the internet”, a nod to his power over the internet, as well as his research work in creating some of the systems that underpin networking.

Mr Postel, who died not long after Icann was created, was in charge of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Administration of the IANA was contracted to the newly-formed Icann, but the US's National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), part of the Department of Commerce, kept its final say over what it was able to do.

It’s that final detail that is set to change from October. No longer will the US government - through the NTIA - be able to intervene on matters around internet naming.

It rarely intervened. Most famously, it stepped in when Icann wanted to launch a new top-level domain for pornography, “.xxx”. The government wanted Icann to ditch the idea, but it eventually went ahead anyway.

From October, the “new” Icann will become an organisation that answers to multiple stakeholders who want a say over the internet. Those stakeholders include countries, businesses and groups offering technical expertise.

Best option

“It's a big change,” remarked Prof Alan Woodward from the University of Surrey.

"It marks a transition from an internet effectively governed by one nation to a multi-stakeholder governed internet: a properly global solution for what has become a global asset."

Technically, the US is doing this voluntarily - if it wanted to keep power of DNS, it could. But the country has long acknowledged that relinquishing its control was a vital act of international diplomacy.

Other countries, particularly China and Russia, had put pressure on the UN to call for the DNS to be controlled by the United Nations’ International Telecommunication Union.

 

Russia had been among the countries calling for the internet to be controlled by the UN

 

A treaty to do just that was on the table in 2012 - but the US, along with the UK, Canada and Australia, refused, citing concerns over human rights abuses that may arise if other countries had greater say and control over the internet and its technical foundations.

Instead, the US has used its remaining power over DNS to shift control to Icann, not the UN.

In response to worries about abuse of the internet by foreign governments, the NTIA said it had consulted corporate governance experts who said its the prospect of government interference was “extremely remote”.

"The community’s new powers to challenge board decisions and enforce decisions in court protect against any one party or group of interests from inappropriately influencing Icann,” it said in a Q&A section on its website.

As for how it will change what happens on the internet, the effects will most likely be minimal for the average user.

"This has nothing to do with laws on the internet,” Prof Woodward said.

"Those still are the national laws that apply where it touches those countries.

"This is more about who officially controls the foundations of the Internet/web addresses and domain names, without which the network wouldn't function."

[http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-37114313]

 

'God of the Internet' is dead
Jon Postel, a key figure in the development of the Internet from its inception, died at the weekend of heart problems aged 55.

Though he wielded immense power in helping to set technical standards, particularly in the area of domain names, he worked behind the scenes, shunning publicity, and never made a fortune from his pioneering position.

"Jon could have been a millionaire. It just wasn't his bag," said Professor Dave Farber, who teaches telecommunications at the University of Pennsylvania and had been Postel's thesis adviser.

He was not elected to the position of responsibility he held in the Internet community - he was simply, in the words of the White House's Internet policy adviser, Ira Magaziner, "the guy they trust".

'Most powerful person on the Net'

"He really was the most powerful person on the Net," Professor Farber said.

"He came by that power legitimately, as the only person who could command the respect and loyalty of the whole community."

The Economist magazine said, simply, "if the Net does have a God, he is probably Jon Postel."

He began working on what became the Internet in 1969 as a 25-year-old graduate student at UCLA. He went on to edit the Requests for Comment which become the Internet's technical standards.

It was not until late in his life that the extent of his influence was understood outside the technology community, and his power was questioned by commercial interests.

Domain name dispute

In 1997 he touched off a debate over how names for Web sites and other internet resources are distributed.

At present, if you want to create a Web site in the .com, .net or .org 'domains' - http://www.bbcnews.org, for example - you have to register the name with an American company, Network Solutions, and pay a fee.

As the number of organizations going online has grown, disputes have arisen over ownership of those names, and Network Solutions' monopoly has been attacked.

Mr Postel suggested an alternative, and his plan inevitably came under fire from competitors.

"It's not appropriate for a single individual like Dr Postel to make those policy decisions," a Network Solutions executive said earlier this year.

Among his responsibilities was assigning all the numbers that go with Internet names, through the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority which he formed and heads.

Postel takes control

In early 1997, as the US government was discussing domain name alternatives, he used this power to transfer control temporarily away from Network Solutions to his own server.

No disruption was caused to the running of the Internet and he said he was merely testing the technical feasibility of any future hand-over of power, but critics accused him of sabre-rattling.

"I'm not on any power trip," he said.

He always maintained that he was motivated solely by the public good and that decisions on domain naming "have to be made fairly and with the long-term benefit of the Internet community in mind".

This philosophy and his contributions will play a critical role in shaping the future of the Internet, for years to come.

Casual style

His style was famously casual - in the early 1970s, he was sent to help the US Air Force with its computers and was ordered to wear shoes before he entered their plane.

Among his other interests were hiking, backpacking and reading British detective stories.

A modest man, when told people might be interested in what kind of person he was, he once told an interviewer, "If we tell them, they won't be interested any more."

He is survived by a brother, Mort Postel and a partner, Susan Gould.

[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/196487.stm]

 

DNS hijacking

DNS hijacking or DNS redirection is the practice of subverting the resolution of Domain Name System (DNS) queries. This can be achieved by malware that overrides a computer's TCP/IP configuration to point at a rogue DNS server under the control of an attacker, or through modifying the behaviour of a trusted DNS server so that it does not comply with Internet standards.

These modifications may be made for malicious purposes such as phishing, or for self-serving purposes by Internet service providers (ISPs) and public/router-based online DNS server providers to direct users' web traffic to the ISP's own web servers where advertisements can be served, statistics collected, or other purposes of the ISP; and by DNS service providers to block access to selected domains as a form of censorship.

[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNS_hijacking]

 

 

Note: The photo was found here, http://news.bbc.co.uk/olmedia/195000/images/_196487_postel300.jpg

    

Τελευταία Ενημέρωση στις Δευτέρα, 07 Αύγουστος 2017 21:19