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7/3/2017, 20:00

European Dissidents ALARM

 

Cavitation damage

 

Μοναδική λύση, το Χόλιγουντ

 

Charlatans

 

Zeppelin: Beyond Gravity

 

Foreign intervention in Greece?

 

Η ανελεύθερη Ελλάδα

 

Η Ελλάδα καταγώγιο;

 

Αν.Επ. Π. Παυλόπουλο

  

Intangible prisons

 

Plausible deniability

 

Images of German w & s

 

Crimes against Humanity

 

"Chimera" - "Bellerophon"

 

pr. Donald Trump

 

  

Legal Notice 87

 

Βδέλλες, αποικιοκρατικές

 

Being a German

 

Legal Notice 84

 

Dirty colonial methods

 

Georgi Markov, BG - KGB

 

Samples of Barbarity

 

Ελλάδα - αποκόλληση

 

Έλληνες, στο έλεος...

 

Harvester's log 16/3/17

 

 

Legal Notice 66

 

Execrable

 

Legal Notice 62

 

  

My story

 

  

Aggression?

 

  

Η Εστία μου

 

  

Why so untidy?

 

  

Αποικιοκρατία

 

  

Εξόντωση Ελλήνων αντιφρονούντων;

 

  

Ζήτημα εμπιστοσύνης

 

  

Μεθοδικότητα

 

  

Ανοικτή Επιστολή πρέσβη ΗΠΑ

Αφορμή, U2RIT vs Ελλάδα;

Βιοηθική

A request to U2RIT

Colonial aggression - 2

Open Letter to UN S.G.

Open Letter to p.C. & p. O.

Δήλωση πρόθεσης επαναπατρισμού

 

Ο "εφιάλτης" της Νυρεμβέργης

Συλλογή Φωτογραφιών

Αίτημα προστασίας, προς Ιταλία

Chroma key, background removal

Science and Ethics

Να συμβάλει και η U2RIT

Θα ξαναφτιάξουν πολλές φορές Άουσβιτς και Zyclon B

 

Split-Screen effect

Η Ζωή είναι Ωραία.

Βόρεια Κορέα

Λευτεριά στους Έλληνες, εξανα- γκαστικά "Εξαφανισμένους"

 

Μυστικές δίκες;

Trustworthiness

Πολιτισμό, ή, απληστία;

Ακραία Στυγνότητα

Η Τέχνη της Επιβίωσης

Political Asylum 3

Επιστροφή στις ρίζες

The Human Cost of Torture

An urgent appeal for solidarity

More obvious than the Sun

Western "culture"

Political Asylum

Έννομη Προστασία

Μια μήνυση που εγείρει ερωτηματικά

 

 

 

Honor your father...

Noise

Creative Greeks

A pair of Dictatorships

The undeniable Human Right of being stupid PDF Εκτύπωση E-mail
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Συντάχθηκε απο τον/την Χρήστος Μπούμπουλης (Christos Boumpoulis)   
Πέμπτη, 11 Μάιος 2017 16:49

misconception.jpg

 
 
The undeniable Human Right of being stupid

 

misconception

English

Etymology

mis- +‎ conception or misconceive +‎ -tion

Pronunciation

  • (US) IPA(key): /ˌmɪskənˈsɛp.ʃən/

Noun

misconception (countable and uncountable, plural misconceptions)

  1. a mistaken belief, a wrong idea

    There are several common misconceptions about the theory of relativity.

    You're obviously under the misconception that I care about your problems.

    He thought that a misconception meant becoming pregnant with a girl.

Translations

a mistaken belief

 

List of common misconceptions

This list of common misconceptions corrects erroneous beliefs that are currently widely held about notable topics. Each misconception and the corresponding facts have been discussed in published literature. Note that each entry is formatted as a correction; the misconceptions themselves are implied rather than stated.

Arts and culture

Food and cooking

  • Searing meat may cause it to lose moisture in comparison to an equivalent amount of cooking without searing. Generally, the value in searing meat is that it creates a brown crust with a rich flavor via the Maillard reaction.[1][2]

  • Food items cooked with wine or liquor retain alcohol according to a study which found that some of the alcohol remains: 25 percent after one hour of baking or simmering, and 10 percent after two hours; in either case, however, the amount consumed while eating a dish prepared with alcohol will rarely if ever contain sufficient alcohol to cause even low levels of intoxication.[3][4]

  • There is no consistent data supporting monosodium glutamate (MSG) as triggering migraine headache exacerbation or other symptoms of so-called Chinese restaurant syndrome. Although there have been reports of an MSG-sensitive subset of the population, this has not been demonstrated in placebo-controlled trials.[5][6]

  • Microwave ovens do not cook food from the inside out. Penetration depth of microwaves is dependent on food composition and the frequency, with lower microwave frequencies (longer wavelengths) penetrating further.[citation needed]

  • Placing metal inside a microwave oven does not damage the oven's electronics. There are, however, other safety-related issues: electrical arcing may occur on pieces of metal not designed for use in a microwave oven, and metal objects may become hot enough to damage food, skin, or the interior of the oven. Metallic objects designed for microwave use can be used in a microwave with no danger; examples include the metallized surfaces used in browning sleeves and pizza-cooking platforms.[7]

  • The functional principle of a microwave oven is dielectric heating rather than resonance frequencies of water, and microwave ovens can therefore operate at many frequencies. Water molecules are exposed to intense electromagnetic fields in strong non-resonant microwaves to create heat. The 22 GHz resonant frequency of isolated water molecules has a wavelength too short to penetrate common foodstuffs to useful depths. The typical oven frequency of 2.45 GHzwas chosen partly due to its ability to penetrate a food object of reasonable size, and partly to avoid interference with communication frequencies in use when microwave ovens became commercially available.[8]

  • Twinkies have a shelf life of approximately 45 days[9] (25 in their original formulation)—far shorter than the common (and somewhat jocular) myth of the cakes being edible for decades or longer.[10] They generally remain on a store shelf for only 7 to 10 days.[11]

  • Fortune cookies, despite being associated with Chinese cuisine in the United States, were invented and brought to the U.S. by the Japanese.[12] The cookies are extremely rare in China, where they are seen as symbols of American cuisine.[13]

  • A standard cup of brewed coffee has more caffeine than a single shot of espresso. The belief that the reverse is true results from espresso having a higher concentration of caffeine, which is offset by the much larger volume overall of a regular cup of coffee.[14]

Legislation and crime

  • It is rarely necessary to wait 24 hours before filing a missing person report. In instances where there is evidence of violence or of an unusual absence, law enforcement agencies in the United States often stress the importance of beginning an investigation promptly.[15] The UK government website says explicitly in large type, "You don't have to wait 24 hours before contacting the police".[16]

  • Entrapment law in the United States does not require police officers to identify themselves as police in the case of a sting or other undercover work, and police officers may lie in doing such work.[17] The law is instead specifically concerned with enticing people to commit crimes they would not have considered in the normal course of events.[18]

  • No one ever claimed in court that Twinkies made them commit a crime. In the murder trial of Dan White, the defense attorneys successfully argued diminished capacity as a result of severe depression. While eating Twinkies was given as evidence of depression, it was never claimed to be the cause of the murders. Despite this, people often claim that White's attorneys argued that Twinkies made him commit the murders.[19]

  • The Geneva Convention permits the use of the M2 Browning .50-caliber machine gun against enemy personnel. The belief to the contrary may have arisen from restrictions imposed by the U.S. military during the Korean or Vietnam Warsbecause of ammunition shortages; a similar tactically-based restriction on the use of the M40 recoilless rifle's .50-caliber spotting rifle may also have been erroneously applied to all weapons of that caliber under a belief that it was legally mandated.[20][21][22]

Literature

See also: Wikiquote: List of misquotations

Music

See also: Mondegreen § In songs

Religion

Buddhism

  • The historical Buddha was not obese. The "chubby Buddha" or "laughing Buddha" is a 10th-century Chinese folk hero by the name of Budai. In Chinese Buddhist culture, Budai came to be revered as an incarnation of Maitreya, theBodhisattva who will become a Buddha to restore Buddhism after the teachings of the historical Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, have been forgotten.[25]

  • The Buddha is not a god. In early Buddhism, Siddhārtha Gautama possessed no salvific powers and strongly encouraged "self-reliance, self-discipline and individual striving."[26] However, in later developments of Mahāyāna Buddhism, notably in the Pure Land (Jìngtǔ) school of Chinese Buddhism, the Amitābha Buddha was thought to be a savior. Through faith in the Amitābha Buddha, one could be reborn in the western Pure Land. Although in Pure Land Buddhism the Buddha is considered a savior, he is still not considered a god in the common understanding of the term.[27]

Christianity and Judaism

  • The forbidden fruit mentioned in the Book of Genesis is never identified as an apple,[28] a misconception widely depicted in Western art. The original Hebrew texts mention only tree and fruit. Early Latin translations use the word mali, which can be taken to mean both "evil" and "apple". In early Germanic languages the word "apple" and its cognates usually meant simply "fruit". German and French artists commonly depict the fruit as an apple from the 12th century onwards, and John Milton's Areopagitica from 1644 explicitly mentions the fruit as an apple.[29] Jewish scholars have suggested that the fruit could have been a grape, a fig, wheat, an apricot, or an etrog.[30]

  • There is no evidence that Jesus was born on December 25.[31] The Bible never claims a date of December 25, but may imply a date closer to September.[31] The fixed date is attributed to Pope Julius the First because in the year 350 CE he declared the twenty-fifth of December the official date of celebration.[32][33] The date may have initially been chosen to correspond with either the day exactly nine months after Christians believe Jesus to have been conceived,[34][35] the date of the Roman winter solstice,[36] or one of various ancient winter festivals.[34][37]

  • The Bible does not say that exactly three magi came to visit the baby Jesus, nor that they were kings, or rode on camels, or that their names were Casper, Melchior, and Balthazar. Matthew 2 has traditionally been combined with Isaiah 60:1–3.

Arise, shine, for your light has come, and the glory of the Lord has risen upon you. 2For behold, darkness shall cover the earth, and thick darkness the peoples; but the Lord will arise upon you, and his glory will be seen upon you. 3And nations shall come to your light, and kings to the brightness of your rising.

Three magi are supposed because three gifts are described, and artistic depictions of the nativity have almost always depicted three magi since the 3rd century.[38] The Bible specifies no interval between the birth and the visit, and artistic depictions and the closeness of the traditional dates of December 25 and January 6 encourage the popular assumption that the visit took place in the same season as the birth, but later traditions varied, with the visit taken as occurring up to two years later. This maximum interval explained Herod's command at Matthew 2:16–18 that the Massacre of the Innocents included boys up to two years old. More recent commentators, not tied to the traditional feast days, may suggest a variety of intervals.[39] (Matthew 2:11).[40]

The idea that Mary Magdalene was a prostitute before meeting Jesus is not found in the Bible. In the Gospel of Luke, there is a passage about a woman with a reputation for sinning (which may well mean prostitution) immediately before the story introducing Mary Magdalene for the first time. The Catholic Church, since Pope Gregory I's time in the 6th century if not before, had historically assumed that the two accounts refer to the same woman, meaning that before her encounter with Jesus, Mary Magdalene was a prostitute. But there is no direct evidence from the Bible over such a link, most modern scholars assert that she was most likely not a prostitute, and even the Catholic Church no longer suggests that the two passages from Luke refer to the same person.[41][42][43]

  • Saul of Tarsus is not recorded as having deliberately changed his name in the Acts of the Apostles or elsewhere in the Bible following his conversion experience on the road to Damascus. He was born a Jew with a Roman citizenship inherited from his father, and thus carried both a Hebrew and a Latin name since his birth. He stopped using his Jewish name "Saul" (Hebrew: שָׁאוּל, Modern Sha'ul, Tiberian Šāʼûl) and used instead his Roman name "Paul" (Latin: Paulus) when he became an international missionary; whether that change was to reflect the new contexts he was in or as a reflection of change in his inward being is not found in the Bible or any contemporaneous sources, and is merely speculative. Luke indicates the coexistence of the names in Acts 13:9: "...Saul, who also is called Paul...".[44][45]

Islam

  • A fatwā is a non-binding legal opinion issued by an Islamic scholar under Islamic law; it is therefore commonplace for fatwās from different authors to disagree. The popular misconception[56][57] that the word means a death sentence probably stems from the fatwā issued by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini of Iran in 1989 regarding the author Salman Rushdie, whom he stated had earned a death sentence for blasphemy. This event led to fatwās gaining widespread media attention in the West.[58]

  • The word "jihad" does not always mean "holy war"; literally, the word in Arabic means "struggle". While there is such a thing as "jihad bil saif", or jihad "by the sword",[59] many modern Islamic scholars usually say that it implies an effort or struggle of a spiritual kind.[60][61] Scholar Louay Safi asserts that "misconceptions and misunderstandings regarding the nature of war and peace in Islam are widespread in both the Muslim societies and the West", as much following 9/11 as before.[62]

  • The Quran does not promise martyrs 72 virgins in heaven. It does mention companions, houri, to all people—martyr or not—in heaven, but no number is specified. The source for the 72 virgins is a hadith in Sunan al-Tirmidhi by Imam Tirmidhi.[63][64] Hadiths are sayings and acts of the prophet Mohammed as reported by others, and as such they are not part of the Quran itself. Muslims are not meant to necessarily believe all hadiths, and that applies particularly to those hadiths that are weakly sourced, such as this one.[65] Furthermore, the correct translation of this particular hadith is a matter of debate.[63] In the same collection of Sunni hadiths, however, the following is judged strong (hasan sahih): "There are six things with Allah for the martyr. He is forgiven with the first flow of blood (he suffers), he is shown his place in Paradise, he is protected from punishment in the grave, secured from the greatest terror, the crown of dignity is placed upon his head—and its gems are better than the world and what is in it—he is married to seventy two wives among Al-Huril-'Ayn of Paradise, and he may intercede for seventy of his close relatives."[66]

Sports

Abner Doubleday did not invent baseball, nor did it originate in Cooperstown, New York. It is believed to have evolved from other bat-and-ball codes such as cricket and roundersand first took its modern form in New York City.[67][68] (See Origins of baseball.)

  • The black belt in martial arts does not necessarily indicate expert level or mastery. It was introduced for judo in the 1880s to indicate competency of all of the basic techniques of the sport. Promotion beyond black belt varies among different martial arts. In judo and some other Asian martial arts, holders of higher ranks are awarded belts with alternating red and white panels, and the highest ranks with solid red belts.[69]

Words, phrases and languages

  • Non-standard, slang or colloquial terms used by English speakers are sometimes alleged not to be real words, despite appearing in numerous dictionaries.[70] All words in English became accepted by being commonly used for a certain period of time; thus there are many informal words currently regarded as "incorrect" in formal speech or writing, but the idea that they are not words is a misconception.[71] Examples of words that are sometimes alleged not to be words include "irregardless",[72][73] "conversate", "funnest", "mentee", "impactful", and "thusly",[74] all of which appear in numerous dictionaries as English words.[75][76]

  • The word "fuck" did not originate in Christianized Anglo-Saxon England (7th century CE) as an acronym for "Fornication Under Consent of King"; nor did it originate as an acronym for "For Unlawful Carnal Knowledge", either as a sign posted above adulterers in the stocks, or as a criminal charge against members of theBritish Armed Forces; nor did it originate during the 15th-century Battle of Agincourt as a corruption of "pluck yew" (an idiom falsely attributed to the English for drawing a longbow).[77] Modern English was not spoken until the 16th century, and words such as "fornication" and "consent" did not exist in any form in English until the influence of Anglo-Norman in the late 12th century. The earliest certain recorded use of "fuck" in English comes from c. 1475, in the poem "Flen flyys", where it is spelled fuccant (conjugated as if a Latin verb meaning "they fuck"). It is of Proto-Germanic origin, and is related to either Dutch fokken and German ficken or Norwegian fukka.[78]

  • The word "crap" did not originate as a back-formation of British plumber Thomas Crapper's surname, nor does his name originate from the word "crap", although the surname may have helped popularize the word.[79] The surname "Crapper" is a variant of "Cropper", which originally referred to someone who harvested crops.[80][81] The word "crap" ultimately comes from Medieval Latin crappa, meaning "chaff".[82]

  • The expression "rule of thumb" did not originate from a law allowing a man to beat his wife with a stick no thicker than his thumb, and there is no evidence that such a law ever existed.[83] The true origin of this phrase remains uncertain, but the false etymology has been broadly reported in media including The Washington Post (1989), CNN (1993), and Timemagazine (1983).[84]

  • "Golf" did not originate as an acronym of "Gentlemen Only, Ladies Forbidden".[85] The word's true origin is unknown, but it existed in the Middle Scots period.[86][87][88]

  • The word "gringo" did not originate during the Mexican–American War (1846–48), the Venezuelan War of Independence(1811–23), the Mexican Revolution (1910–20), or in the American Old West (c. 1865–99) as a corruption of the lyrics "green grow" in either "Green Grow the Lilacs" or "Green Grow the Rushes, O" sung by US-American soldiers orcowboys;[89] nor did it originate during any of these times as a corruption of "Green go home!", falsely said to have been shouted at green-clad American troops.[90] The word originally simply meant "foreigner", and is probably a corruption of Spanish griego, "Greek".[91]

"420" did not originate from the Los Angeles police or penal code for marijuana use.[92]In California, Police Code 420 means "juvenile disturbance",[93] and California Penal Code section 420 prohibits the obstruction of access to public land.[92][94] The use of "420" started in 1971 at San Rafael High School, where it indicated the time, 4:20 pm, when a group of students would go to smoke under the statue of Louis Pasteur.[92]

  • The word "the" was never pronounced or spelled "ye" in Old or Middle English.[95] The confusion derives from the use of the character thorn (þ) in abbreviations of the word "the", which in Middle English text (Middle English the.svg) looked similar to a y with a superscript e.[96][97]

  • "Xmas" did not originate as a secular plan to "take the Christ out of Christmas".[98] Xstands for the Greek letter chi, the starting letter of Χριστός (Christos), or "Christ" in Greek.[99] The use of the word "Xmas" in English can be traced to the year 1021 when "monks in Great Britain...used the X as abbreviation while transcribing classical manuscripts into Old English" in place of "Christ".[98] The Oxford English Dictionary's "first recorded use of 'Xmas' for 'Christmas' dates back to 1551."[100]

  • Although the expression "the enemy of my enemy is my friend" is often described as an Arabic proverb, there is no evidence of such an origin. Its exact origin is unknown. TheLatin saying amicus meus, inimicus inimici mei ("my friend, the enemy of my enemy") was widely used in 18th century Europe.[101]

  • The pronunciation of coronal fricatives in Spanish did not come around as imitation of a lisping king. Only one Spanish king, Peter of Castile, is documented as having a lisp, and the current pronunciation originated two centuries after his death.[102]

  • The Chevrolet Nova sold very well in Latin American markets; General Motors did not need to rename the car. While "no va" does mean "it doesn't go" in Spanish, "nova" is understood as "new" and drivers in Mexico and Venezuela where it was first sold bought it eagerly. There was no need to change the model name,[103] despite claims to the contrary.[104][105]

  • Sign languages are not the same worldwide. Aside from the pidgin International Sign, each country generally has its own, native sign language, and some have more than one (although there are also substantial similarities among all sign languages).[106][107][108]

History

Ancient to early modern history

Vomiting was not a regular part of Roman dining customs.[109] In ancient Rome, the architectural feature called a vomitorium was the entrance way through which crowds entered and exited a stadium, not a special room used for purging food during meals.[110]

  • The Library of Alexandria was not destroyed by the Muslim Army during the capture of the city in 641. A common misconception alleged that Caliph Umar ordered the destruction based on the reasoning "If those books are in agreement with the Quran, we have no need of them; and if these are opposed to the Quran, destroy them" (or its variation). This story did not appear in writing until hundreds of years after the alleged incident (most famously in the work of Bar Hebraeus in the 13th century) and contemporary accounts of the Arab invasion do not include any account of the library's destruction. Modern consensus suggests the library had likely already been destroyed centuries before this incident.[111][112] (It is instead believed that the Library of Caesarea, a key repository of Christian literature, was the library destroyed near this time.)[113]

  • It is true that life expectancy in the Middle Ages and earlier was low; however, one should not infer that people usually died around the age of 30.[114] In fact, earlier low life expectancies were very strongly influenced by high infant mortality, and the life expectancy of people who lived to adulthood was much higher. A 21-year-old man in medieval England, for example, could by one estimate expect to live to the age of 64.[115]

  • There is no evidence that Vikings wore horns on their helmets.[116] In fact, the image of Vikings wearing horned helmets stems from the scenography of an 1876 production of the Der Ring des Nibelungen opera cycle by Richard Wagner.[117]

  • Vikings did not drink out of the skulls of vanquished enemies. This was based on a mistranslation of the skaldic poetic use of ór bjúgviðum hausa (branches of skulls) to refer to drinking horns.[118]

  • King Canute did not command the tide to reverse in a fit of delusional arrogance.[119] His intent that day, if the incident even happened, was most likely to prove a point to members of his privy council that no man is all-powerful, and we all must bend to forces beyond our control, such as the tides.

  • There is no evidence that iron maidens were invented in the Middle Ages or even used for torture. Instead they were pieced together in the 18th century from several artifacts found in museums in order to create spectacular objects intended for (commercial) exhibition.[120]

  • The plate armor of European soldiers did not stop soldiers from moving around or necessitate a crane to get them into a saddle. They would as a matter of course fight on foot and could mount and dismount without help. In fact, soldiers equipped with plate armor were more mobile than those with mail armor (chain armor), as mail was heavier and required stiff padding beneath due to its pliable nature.[121] It is true that armor used in tournaments in the late Middle Ages was significantly heavier than that used in warfare,[122] which may have contributed to this misconception.

  • Whether chastity belts, devices designed to prevent women from having sexual intercourse, were invented in medievaltimes is disputed by modern historians. Most existing chastity belts are now thought to be deliberate fakes or anti-masturbatory devices from the 19th and early 20th centuries. The latter were made due to the widespread belief that masturbation could lead to insanity, and were mostly bought by parents for their teenage children.[123]

  • Medieval Europeans did not believe Earth was flat; in fact, from the time of the ancient Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle, belief in a spherical Earth remained almost universal among European intellectuals. As a result, Christopher Columbus's efforts to obtain support for his voyages were hampered not by belief in a flat Earth but by valid worries that the East Indies were farther than he realized.[124] If the Americas had not existed, he would surely have run out of supplies before reaching Asia.

  • Columbus never reached any land that now forms part of the mainland United States of America; most of the landings Columbus made on his four voyages, including the initial October 12, 1492 landing (the anniversary of which forms the basis of Columbus Day), were on Caribbean islands which today are independent countries. Columbus was also not the first European to visit the Americas: at least one explorer, Leif Ericson, preceded him by reaching what is believed to be the island now known as Newfoundland, part of modern Canada, though he never made it to the mainland.[125][126]

  • Marco Polo did not import pasta from China,[127] a misconception which originated with the Macaroni Journal, published by an association of food industries with the goal of promoting the use of pasta in the United States.[128] Marco Polo describes a food similar to "lagana" in his Travels, but he uses a term with which he was already familiar. Durum wheat, and thus pasta as it is known today, was introduced by Arabs from Libya, during their conquest of Sicily in the late 7th century, according to the newsletter of the National Macaroni Manufacturers Association,[129] thus predating Marco Polo's travels to China by about six centuries.

  • Contrary to the popular image of the Pilgrim Fathers, the early settlers of the Plymouth Colony did not wear all black, and their capotains (hats) were shorter and rounder than the widely depicted tall hat with a buckle on it. Instead, their fashion was based on that of the late Elizabethan era: doublets, jerkins and ruffs. Both men and women wore the same style of shoes, stockings, capes, coats and hats in a range of colors including reds, yellows, purples, and greens.[130] According to Plimoth Plantation historian James W. Baker, the traditional image was formed in the 19th century when buckles were a kind of emblem of quaintness.[131][132]

  • The accused at the Salem witch trials were not burned at the stake; about 15 died in prison, 19 were hanged and one was pressed to death.[133][134]

  • Marie Antoinette did not say "let them eat cake" when she heard that the French peasantry were starving due to a shortage of bread. The phrase was first published in Rousseau's Confessions when Marie was only nine years old and most scholars believe that Rousseau coined it himself, or that it was said by Maria-Theresa, the wife of Louis XIV. Even Rousseau (or Maria-Theresa) did not use the exact words but actually Qu'ils mangent de la brioche, "Let them eatbrioche" (a rich type of bread). Marie Antoinette was an unpopular ruler; therefore, people attribute the phrase "let them eat cake" to her, in keeping with her reputation as being hard-hearted and disconnected from her subjects.[135]

  • George Washington did not have wooden teeth. His dentures were made of gold, hippopotamus ivory, lead, animal teeth (including horse and donkey teeth),[136] and probably human teeth purchased from slaves.[137]

  • The signing of the United States Declaration of Independence did not occur on July 4, 1776. After the Second Continental Congress voted to declare independence on July 2, the final language of the document was approved on July 4, and it was printed and distributed on July 4–5.[138] However, the actual signing occurred on August 2, 1776.[139]

  • Benjamin Franklin did not propose that the wild turkey be used as the symbol for the United States instead of the bald eagle. While he did serve on a commission that tried to design a seal after the Declaration of Independence, his proposal was an image of Moses. His objections to the eagle as a national symbol and preference for the turkey were stated in a 1784 letter to his daughter in response to the Society of the Cincinnati's use of the former; he never expressed that sentiment publicly.[140][141]

  • There was never a bill to make German the official language of the United States that was defeated by one vote in theHouse of Representatives, nor has one been proposed at the state level. In 1794, a petition from a group of German immigrants was put aside on a procedural vote of 42 to 41, that would have had the government publish some laws in German. This was the basis of the Muhlenberg legend, named after the Speaker of the House at the time, Frederick Muhlenberg, a speaker of German descent who abstained from this vote.[142][143][144]

Modern history

Napoleon Bonaparte was not short. He was actually slightly taller than the average Frenchman of his time.[145][146] After his death in 1821, the French emperor's height was recorded as 5 feet 2 inches in French feet, which in English measurements is 5 feet 7 inches (1.69 m).[147][148] Some believe that he was nicknamed le Petit Caporal (The Little Corporal) as a term of affection.[149] Napoleon was often accompanied by his imperial guard, who were selected for their height[150]—this could have contributed to a perception that he was relatively short.

  • Cinco de Mayo is not Mexico's Independence Day, but the celebration of the Mexican Army's victory over the French in the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862. Mexico's Declaration of Independence from Spain in 1810 is celebrated on September 16.[151][152]

  • Cowboy hats were not initially popular in the Western American frontier, with derby or bowler hats being the typical headgear of choice.[153] Heavy marketing of the Stetson"Boss of the Plains" model in the years following the American Civil War was the primary driving force behind the cowboy hat's popularity, with its characteristic dented top not becoming standard until near the end of the 19th century.[154]

  • The Great Chicago Fire of 1871 was not caused by Mrs. O'Leary's cow kicking over a lantern. A newspaper reporter invented the story to make colorful copy.[155]

  • The claim that Frederic Remington, on assignment to Cuba in 1897, telegraphed William Randolph Hearst that "There will be no war. I wish to return" and that Hearst responded, "Please remain. You furnish the pictures, and I'll furnish the war" is unsubstantiated. This anecdote was originally included in a book by James Creelman, though there is no evidence that the telegraph exchange ever happened, and substantial evidence that it did not.[156][157]

  • Immigrants' last names were not Americanized (voluntarily, mistakenly, or otherwise) upon arrival at Ellis Island. Officials there kept no records other than checking ship manifests created at the point of origin, and there was simply no paperwork which would have created such an effect, let alone any law. At the time in New York, anyone could change the spelling of their name simply by using that new spelling.[158]

  • The common image of Santa Claus as a good old man in red robes was not created by The Coca-Cola Company as an advertising gimmick. Despite being historically represented with different characteristics in different colours of robes, Santa Claus had already taken his modern form in popular culture and seen extensive use in other companies' advertisements and other mass media at the time Coca-Cola began using his image in the 1930s.[159]

  • Italian dictator Benito Mussolini did not "make the trains run on time". Much of the repair work had been performed before Mussolini and the Fascists came to power in 1922. Accounts from the era also suggest that the Italian railways' legendary adherence to timetables was more propaganda than reality.[160]

  • There was no widespread outbreak of panic across the United States in response to Orson Welles' 1938 radio adaptation of H.G. Wells' The War of the Worlds. Only a very small share of the radio audience was even listening to it, and isolated reports of scattered incidents and increased call volume to emergency services were played up the next day by newspapers, eager to discredit radio as a competitor for advertising. Both Welles and CBS, which had initially reacted apologetically, later came to realize that the myth benefited them and actively embraced it in their later years.[161][162]

  • There is no evidence of Polish cavalry mounting a brave but futile charge against German tanks using lances and sabres during the German invasion of Poland in 1939. This story may have originated from German propaganda efforts following the charge at Krojanty, in which a Polish cavalry brigade surprised German infantry in the open, and successfully charged and dispersed them, until driven off by armoured cars. While Polish cavalry still carried the sabre for such opportunities, they were trained to fight as highly mobile, dismounted cavalry (dragoons) and issued with light anti-tank weapons.[163][164]

  • During the occupation of Denmark by the Nazis during World War II, King Christian X of Denmark did not thwart Nazi attempts to identify Jews by wearing a yellow star himself. Jews in Denmark were never forced to wear the Star of David. The Danish resistance did help most Jews flee the country before the end of the war.[165]

  • Albert Einstein did not fail mathematics classes (never "flunked a math exam") in school. Upon seeing a column making this claim, Einstein said "I never failed in mathematics... Before I was fifteen I had mastered differential and integral calculus."[166][167] Einstein did however fail his first entrance exam into the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School (ETH) in 1895, when he was two years younger than his fellow students but scored exceedingly well in the mathematics and science sections, then passed on his second attempt.[168]

  • Actor Ronald Reagan was never seriously considered for the role of Rick Blaine in the 1942 film classic Casablanca, eventually played by Humphrey Bogart. This belief came from an early studio press release announcing the film's production that used his name to generate interest in the film. But by the time it had come out, Warner Bros. knew that Reagan was unavailable for any roles in the foreseeable future since he was no longer able to defer his entry into military service.[169] Studio records show that producer Hal B. Wallis had always wanted Bogart for the part.[170][171]

  • U.S. Senator George Smathers never gave a speech to a rural audience describing his opponent, Claude Pepper, as an "extrovert" whose sister was a "thespian", in the apparent hope they would confuse them with similar-sounding words like "pervert" and "lesbian". Time, which is sometimes cited as the source, described the story of the purported speech as a "yarn" at the time,[172] and no Florida newspaper reported such a speech during the campaign. The leading reporter who covered Smathers said he always gave the same boilerplate speech. Smathers had offered US$10,000 to anyone who could prove he had made the speech; it was never claimed.[173]

  • John F. Kennedy's words "Ich bin ein Berliner" are standard German for "I am a Berliner."[174][175] An urban legend has it that due to his use of the indefinite article ein, Berliner is translated as jelly doughnut, and that the population of Berlin was amused by the supposed mistake. The word Berliner is not commonly used in Berlin to refer to the Berliner Pfannkuchen; they are usually called ein Pfannkuchen.[176]

  • African American intellectual and activist W.E.B. Du Bois did not renounce his U.S. citizenship while living in Ghanashortly before his death,[177] as is often claimed.[178][179][180] In early 1963, due to his membership in the Communist Party and support for the Soviet Union, the U.S. State Department did not renew his passport while he was already in Ghana overseeing the creation of the Encyclopedia Africana. After leaving the embassy, he stated his intention to renounce his citizenship in protest. But while he took Ghanaian citizenship, he never went through the process of renouncing his American citizenship,[181] and may not even have intended to.[177]

  • When bartender Kitty Genovese was murdered outside her Queens apartment in 1964, 37 neighbors did not stand idly by and watch, not calling the police until after she was dead, as The New York Times initially reported[182] to widespread public outrage that persisted for years. Later reporting established that the police report the Times had initially relied on was inaccurate, that Genovese had been attacked twice in different locations, and while the many witnesses heard the attack they only heard brief portions and did not realize what was occurring, with only six or seven actually reporting seeing anything. Some called police; one who did not said "I didn't want to get involved", an attitude which later came to be attributed to all the residents who saw or heard part of the attack.[183]

  • The Rolling Stones were not performing "Sympathy for the Devil" at the 1969 Altamont Free Concert when Meredith Hunter was stabbed to death by a member of the local Hells Angels chapter that was serving as security. While the incident that culminated in Hunter's death began while the band was performing the song, prompting a brief interruption before the Stones finished it, it concluded several songs later as the band was performing "Under My Thumb".[184][185]The misconception arose from mistaken reporting in Rolling Stone.[186]

  • While it was praised by one architectural magazine prior to its construction as "the best high apartment of the year", thePruitt–Igoe housing project in St. Louis, Missouri, considered to epitomize the failures of urban renewal in American cities after it was demolished in the early 1970s, never won any awards for its design.[187] The architectural firm that designed the buildings did win an award for an earlier St. Louis project, which may have been confused with Pruitt–Igoe.[188]

  • Although popularly known as the "red telephone", the Moscow–Washington hotline was never a telephone line, nor were red phones used. The first implementation of the hotline used teletype equipment, which was replaced by facsimile (fax) machines in 1988. Since 2008, the hotline has been a secure computer link over which the two countries exchangeemails.[189] Moreover, the hotline links the Kremlin to the Pentagon, not the White House.[190]

Science and technology

Astronomy

The Great Wall of China is not, as is claimed, the only human-made object visible from the Moon or from space. None of the Apollo astronauts reported seeing anyspecific human-made object from the Moon, and even Earth-orbiting astronauts can barely see it. City lights, however, are easily visible on the night side of Earth from orbit.[191] Shuttle astronaut Jay Apt has been quoted as saying that "the Great Wall is almost invisible from only 180 miles (290 km) up."[192] (See Man-made structures visible from space.) ISS commander Chris Hadfield attempted to find it from space, but said that it was "hard as it's narrow and dun-colored."[193]

  • Black holes have the same gravitational effects as any other equal mass in their place. They will draw objects nearby towards them, just as any other planetary body does, except at very close distances.[194] If, for example, the Sun were replaced by a black hole of equal mass, the orbits of the planets would be essentially unaffected. A black hole can act like a "cosmic vacuum cleaner" and pull a substantial inflow of matter, but only if the star it forms from is already having a similar effect on surrounding matter.[195]

  • Seasons are not caused by the Earth being closer to the Sun in the summer than in the winter. In fact, the Earth is farthest from the Sun when it is summer in theNorthern Hemisphere. Seasons are caused by Earth's 23.4-degree axial tilt. In July, the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun resulting in longer days and more direct sunlight; in January, it is tilted away. The seasons are reversed in the Southern Hemisphere, which is tilted towards the Sun in January and away from the Sun in July.[196][197]

  • Meteorites are not necessarily hot when they reach the Earth's surface. In fact, many meteorites are found with frost on them. As they enter the atmosphere, having been warmed only by the sun, meteors have a temperature below freezing. The intense heat produced during passage through the upper atmosphere at very high speed then melts a meteor's outside layer, but molten material is blown off and the interior does not have time to warm appreciably. Most meteorites fall through the relatively cool lower atmosphere for as long as several minutes at subsonic velocity before reaching the ground, giving plenty of time for their exterior to cool off again.[198]

  • When a meteor or spacecraft enters the atmosphere, the heat of entry is not (primarily) caused by friction, but byadiabatic compression of air in front of the object.[199][200][201]

  • Egg balancing is possible on every day of the year, not just the vernal equinox,[202] and there is no relationship between astronomical phenomena and the ability to balance an egg.[203] The tradition of balancing eggs on a particular date originates in China, when it was reported on by Life magazine in 1945.[204] However, it was reported in 1987 that Frank Ghigo was able to balance some eggs on every day from February 27 to April 3, 1984. At the same time, he also found that "...some eggs would simply never balance, on the equinox or otherwise."[203]

  • The Sun's color is white, with a CIE color-space index near (0.3, 0.3), when viewed from space or when high in the sky; when low in the sky, atmospheric scattering renders the Sun's appearance yellow, red, orange, or magenta. Despite its typical whiteness, most people mentally picture the Sun as yellow; the reasons for this are the subject of debate.[205]

Biology

Vertebrates

Older elephants that are near death do not leave their herd and instinctively direct themselves toward a specific location known as an elephants' graveyard to die.[206]

  • Bulls are not enraged by the color red, used in capes by professional matadors. Cattle are dichromats, so red does not stand out as a bright color. It is not the color of the cape, but the perceived threat by the matador that incites it to charge.[207]

  • Dogs do not sweat by salivating.[208] Dogs actually do have sweat glands and not only on their tongues; they sweat mainly through their footpads. However, dogs do primarily regulate their body temperature through panting.[209] See also Dog anatomy.

  • Lemmings do not engage in mass suicidal dives off cliffs when migrating. This misconception was popularized by the Disney film White Wilderness, which shot many of the migration scenes (also staged by using multiple shots of different groups of lemmings) on a large, snow-covered turntable in a studio. Photographers later pushed the lemmings off a cliff.[210] The misconception itself is much older, dating back to at least the late 19th century.[211]

  • Bats are not blind. While about 70 percent of bat species, mainly in the microbat family, use echolocation to navigate, all bat species have eyes and are capable of sight. In addition, almost all bats in the megabat or fruit bat family cannot echolocate and have excellent night vision.[212]

  • Ostriches do not stick their heads in the sand to hide from enemies.[213] This misconception was probably promulgated by Pliny the Elder (23–79 CE), who wrote that ostriches "imagine, when they have thrust their head and neck into a bush, that the whole of their body is concealed."[214]

  • A duck's quack actually does echo,[215] although the echo may be difficult to hear for humans under some circumstances.[216]

  • Frogs die immediately when cast into boiling water, rather than leaping out; furthermore, frogs will attempt to escape cold water that is slowly heated past their critical thermal maximum.[217]

  • The notion that goldfish have a memory span of just a few seconds is false.[218][219] It is much longer, counted in months.

  • Sharks can suffer from cancer. The misconception that sharks do not get cancer was spread by the 1992 Avery Publishing book Sharks Don't Get Cancer by I. William Lane and used to sell extracts of shark cartilage as cancer prevention treatments. Reports of carcinomas in sharks exist, and current data do not allow any speculation about the incidence of tumors in sharks.[220]

  • Great white sharks do not mistake human divers for pinnipeds. Their attack behaviors on humans and pinnipeds are very different: when attacking a seal, a great white shark surfaces quickly and violently attacks it. Attacks on humans, on the other hand, are more relaxed and slow: the shark charges at a normal pace, bites, and swims off. Great white sharks have efficient eyesight and color vision; the bite is not predatory, but rather for identification of an unfamiliar object.[221]

  • There is no such thing as an ‘alpha’ in a wolf pack. An early study that coined the term 'alpha wolf’ had only observed unrelated adult wolves living in captivity. In the wild, wolf packs operate more like human families: there is no defined sense of rank, parents are in charge until the young grow up and start their own families, younger wolves don’t overthrow the 'alpha’ to become the new leader, and social dominance fights are situational.[222][223]

Invertebrates

Earthworms do not become two worms when cut in half. Only a limited number of earthworm species[224] are capable of anterior regeneration. When such earthworms are bisected, only the front half of the worm (where the mouth is located) can feed and survive, while the other half dies.[225] Some species ofplanarian flatworms, however, actually do become two new planarians when bisected or split down the middle.[226]

  • Houseflies have an average lifespan of 20 to 30 days, not 24 hours.[227] Some species of mayflies do have the lifespan attributed to the housefly. A housefly maggot will hatch within 24 hours of being laid.[228]

  • The daddy longlegs spider (Pholcidae) is not the most venomous spider in the world, and they can indeed pierce human skin, though the tiny amount of venom they carry causes only a mild burning sensation for a few seconds.[229] In addition, there is also confusion regarding the use of the name daddy longlegs, because harvestmen (order Opiliones, which are arachnids, but not spiders) and crane flies (which are insects) are also known as daddy longlegs, and share the misconception of being venomous.[230][231]

  • The flight mechanism and aerodynamics of the bumblebee (as well as other insects) are actually quite well understood, despite the urban legend that calculations show that they should not be able to fly. In the 1930s, the French entomologist Antoine Magnan indeed postulated that bumblebees theoretically should not be able to fly in his book Le Vol des Insectes (The Flight of Insects).[232] Magnan later realized his error and retracted the suggestion. However, the hypothesis became generalized to the false notion that "scientists think that bumblebees should not be able to fly".

  • The widespread urban legend that one swallows a high number of spiders during sleep in one's life has no basis in reality. A sleeping person causes all kinds of noise and vibrations by breathing, the beating heart, snoring etc. all of which warn spiders of danger.[233][234]

  • Earwigs are not known to purposefully climb into external ear canals, though there have been anecdotal reports of earwigs being found in the ear.[235] Entomologists suggest that the origin of the name is actually a reference to the appearance of the hindwings, which are unique and distinctive among insects, and resemble a human ear when unfolded.[236][237]

Plants

Poinsettias are not highly toxic to humans or cats. While it is true that they are mildly irritating to the skin or stomach,[238] and may sometimes cause diarrheaand vomiting if eaten,[239] an American Journal of Emergency Medicine study of 22,793 cases reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers showed no fatalities and few cases requiring medical treatment.[240] According to the ASPCA, poinsettias may cause light to mid-range gastrointestinal discomfort in felines, with diarrhea and vomiting as the most severe consequences of ingestion.[241]

  • Flowering sunflowers point in a fixed direction (often east) all day long.[242][243][244]However, in an earlier developmental stage, before the appearance of flower heads, the immature buds do track the sun (a phenomenon called heliotropism) and the fixed alignment of the mature flowers toward a certain direction is often the result.[245]

Evolution and palaeontology

  • The word theory in "the theory of evolution" does not imply mainstream scientific doubt regarding its validity; the concepts of theory and hypothesis have specific meanings in a scientific context. While theory in colloquial usage may denote a hunch or conjecture, a scientific theory is a set of principles that explains observable phenomena in naturalterms.[246][247] "Scientific fact and theory are not categorically separable",[248] and evolution is a theory in the same sense as germ theory or the theory of gravitation.[249]

  • Evolution does not attempt to explain the origin of life[250] or the origin and development of the universe. While biological evolution describes the process by which species and other levels of biological organization originate, and ultimately leads all life forms back to a universal common ancestor, it is not primarily concerned with the origin of life itself,[251] and does not pertain at all to the origin and evolution of the universe and its components. The theory of evolution deals primarily with changes in successive generations over time after life has already originated.[252] The scientific model concerned with the origin of the first organisms from organic or inorganic molecules is known as abiogenesis, and the prevailing theory for explaining the early development of our universe is the Big Bang model.

Humans did not evolve from either of the living species of chimpanzees.[253]Humans and chimpanzees did, however, evolve from a common ancestor.[254][255]The two modern species (common chimpanzees and bonobos) are humans' closest living relatives. Some anthropologists and primatologists describe humans as a species of chimpanzee.[256][257] The most recent common ancestorof humans and the other living chimpanzees lived between 5 and 8 million years ago.[258] Finds of the 4.4 million-year-old Ardipithecus indicate the ancestor was a moderately competent bipedal walker rather than a knucklewalker, and was small and rather more long-limbed than a chimpanzee, with a shorter snout. Contrary to the idea of chimpanzees as "primitive", they too have evolved since the split, becoming larger, more aggressive, and more capable climbers,[259] with longer fingers.[260] Together with the other great apes, humans and chimpanzees constitute the family Hominidae. This group evolved from a common ancestor with the Old World monkeys some 40 million years ago.[261][262]

  • Evolution is not a progression from inferior to superior organisms, and it also does not necessarily result in an increase in complexity. A population can evolve to become simpler, having a smaller genome, but biological devolution is amisnomer.[263][264]

  • Evolution does not "plan" to improve an organism's fitness to survive.[265][266] For example, an incorrect way to describe giraffe evolution is to say that giraffe necks grew longer over time because giraffes needed to reach tall trees. Evolution does not see a need and respond; it is instead a goalless process. A mutation resulting in longer necks would be more likely to benefit an animal in an area with tall trees than an area with short trees, and thus enhance the chance of the animal surviving to pass on its longer-necked genes. Tall trees could not cause the mutation nor would they cause a higher percentage of animals to be born with longer necks.[267] In the giraffe example, the evolution of a long neck may equally well have been driven by sexual selection, proposing that the long necks evolved as a secondary sexual characteristic, giving males an advantage in "necking" contests over females.[268] The misconception is encouraged as it is common shorthand for people who understand how evolution works to speak of a purpose as a concise form of expression (sometimes called the "metaphor of purpose");[269] it is less cumbersome to say "Dinosaurs may have evolved feathers for courtship" than "Feathers may have been selected for when they arose as they gave dinosaurs a selective advantage over their non-feathered peers".[270]

  • Humans and dinosaurs (other than birds) did not coexist.[271] The last of the non-avian dinosaurs died 66 million years ago in the course of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, whereas the earliest Homo genus (humans) evolved between 2.3 and 2.4 million years ago. This places a 63-million-year expanse of time between the last non-bird dinosaurs and the earliest humans. Humans did coexist with woolly mammoths and saber-toothed cats—mammals which are often depicted alongside humans and dinosaurs.[272]

  • Dinosaurs did not become extinct due to being generally maladapted or unable to cope with normal climatic change, a view found in many older textbooks. In fact, dinosaurs comprised an extremely adaptive and successful group whose demise was brought about by an extraordinary event that also extinguished many groups of plants, mammals and marine life.[273] The most commonly cited cause of this mass extinction is an asteroid impact on the Yucatán Peninsula, triggering the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event.[274] Also, not all dinosaurs became extinct. Birds evolved from small feathered theropods in the Jurassic, and while most dinosaur lineages were cut short at the end of the Cretaceous, some birds survived. Consequently, dinosaur descendants are part of the modern fauna.[275]

  • Mammals did not evolve from any modern group of reptiles; rather, mammals and reptiles evolved from a common ancestor. Soon after the first reptile-like animals appeared, they split into two branches, the sauropsids and the synapsids.[276] The line leading to mammals (the synapsids) diverged from the line leading to modern reptilian lines (the sauropsids) about 320 million years ago, in the mid-Carboniferous period. Only later (in the late Carboniferous or early Permian) did the modern reptilian groups (lepidosaurs, turtles and crocodiles) diverge. The mammals themselves are the only survivors of the synapsid line.[277]

Computing

Human body and health

Waking sleepwalkers does not harm them. While it is true that a person may be confused or disoriented for a short time after awakening, this does not cause them further harm. In contrast, sleepwalkers may injure themselves if they trip over objects or lose their balance while sleepwalking. Such injuries are common among sleepwalkers.[279][280]

  • In South Korea, it is commonly and incorrectly believed that sleeping in a closed room with an electric fan running can cause what is called fan death. According to the Korean government, "In some cases, a fan turned on too long can cause death from suffocation, hypothermia, or fire from overheating."[281] The Korea Consumer Protection Board issued a consumer safety alert recommending that electric fans be set on timers, direction changed and doors left open. Belief infan death is common even among knowledgeable medical professionals in Korea. According to Yeon Dong-su, dean of Kwandong University's medical school, "If it is completely sealed, then in the current of an electric fan, the temperature can drop low enough to cause a person to die of hypothermia."[282] Actually, a fan just moves air without significantly changing its temperature, to increase the evaporation of sweat. Leaving a fan running in an unoccupied room will not cool it; in fact, due to energy losses from the motor and viscous dissipation, a fan will slightly heat a room.

  • Eating less than an hour before swimming does not increase the risk of experiencing muscle cramps or drowning. One study shows a correlation between alcohol consumption and drowning, but there is no evidence cited regarding stomach cramps or the consumption of food.[283]

  • Drowning is often inconspicuous to onlookers.[284] In most cases, raising the arms and vocalising are impossible due to the instinctive drowning response.[284] Waving and yelling (known as "aquatic distress") is a sign of trouble, but not a dependable one: most victims demonstrating the instinctive drowning response do not show prior evidence of distress.[285]

  • Human blood in veins is not actually blue. In fact, blood is always red due to hemoglobin. Deoxygenated blood has a deep red color, and oxygenated blood has a light cherry-red color. The misconception probably arises for two reasons: 1) Veins below the skin appear blue. This is due to a variety of reasons only weakly dependent on the color of the blood, including subsurface scattering of light through the skin, and human color perception. 2) Many diagrams use colors to show the difference between veins (usually shown in blue) and arteries (usually shown in red).[286]

  • Exposure to a vacuum, or experiencing uncontrolled decompression, does not cause the body to explode, or internal fluids to boil. (However, fluids in the mouth or lungs will boil at altitudes above the Armstrong limit.) Instead, it would lead to a loss of consciousness once the body has depleted the supply of oxygen in the blood, followed by death fromhypoxia within minutes.[287]

  • Diet has little influence on the body's detoxification. Despite this, there is a common misconception that specific diets aid this process and can remove substances that the body is unable to remove by itself.[288][289][290][291] Toxins are removed from the body by the liver and kidney.[292]

Senses

All different tastes can be detected on all parts of the tongue by taste buds,[293] with slightly increased sensitivities in different locations depending on the person, contrary to the popular belief that specific tastes only correspond to specific mapped sites on the tongue.[294] The original tongue map was based on a mistranslation of a 1901 German thesis[295] by Edwin Boring. In addition, the current common categorical conception is there are not 4 but 5 primary tastes. In addition to bitter, sour, salty, and sweet, humans have taste receptors for umami, which is a savory or meaty taste.[296]

Skin and hair

  • Water-induced wrinkles are not caused by the skin absorbing water and swelling.[300]They are caused by the autonomic nervous system, which triggers localizedvasoconstriction in response to wet skin, yielding a wrinkled appearance. This was theorized to have evolved to give ancestral primates a better grip in slippery, wet environments,[301][302] but a 2014 study showed no improvement in handling wet objects with wrinkled fingertips.[303]

  • Shaving does not cause terminal hair to grow back thicker, coarser or darker. The hair only becomes wider and feels coarser. This belief is due to hair which has never been cut having a tapered end, whereas after cutting the edge is blunt and therefore wider than the tapered ends; the cut hair appears to be thicker and feels coarser due to the sharper, unworn edges. The shorter hairs being "harder" (less flexible) than longer hairs also contributes to this effect.[304]

  • Hair and fingernails do not continue to grow after a person dies. Rather, the skin dries and shrinks away from the bases of hairs and nails, giving the appearance of growth.[305]

  • Hair care products cannot actually "repair" split ends and damaged hair. They can prevent damage from occurring in the first place, and they can also smooth down the cuticle in a glue-like fashion so that it appears repaired, and generally make hair appear in better condition.[306]

  • The redhead gene is not becoming extinct. In August 2007, many news organizations reported that redheads would become extinct, possibly as early as 2060, due to the gene for red hair being recessive. Although redheads may become more rare (for example, mixed marriages where one parent is from a group without the redhead gene will result in no redheaded children, but some redheaded grandchildren), redheads will not die out unless everyone who carries the gene dies or fails to reproduce.[307] This misconception has been around since at least 1865, and often resurfaces in American newspapers.[308] (See also Disappearing blonde gene.)

Nutrition, food, and drink

  • Eight glasses or two to three liters of water a day are not needed to maintain health.[309] The amount of water needed varies by person (weight), activity level, clothing, and environment (heat and humidity). Water actually need not be drunk in pure form, but can be derived from liquids such as juices, tea, milk, soups, etc., and from foods including fruits and vegetables.[309]

  • Sugar does not cause hyperactivity in children.[310][311] Double-blind trials have shown no difference in behavior between children given sugar-full or sugar-free diets, even in studies specifically looking at children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or those considered sensitive to sugar.[312]

  • Alcoholic beverages do not make the entire body warmer.[313] The reason that alcoholic drinks create the sensation of warmth is that they cause blood vessels to dilate and stimulate nerve endings near the surface of the skin with an influx of warm blood. This can actually result in making the core body temperature lower, as it allows for easier heat exchange with a cold external environment.[314]

  • Alcohol does not necessarily kill brain cells.[315] Alcohol can, however, lead indirectly to the death of brain cells in two ways: (1) In chronic, heavy alcohol users whose brains have adapted to the effects of alcohol, abrupt cessation following heavy use can cause excitotoxicity leading to cellular death in multiple areas of the brain.[316] (2) In alcoholics who get most of their daily calories from alcohol, a deficiency of thiamine can produce Korsakoff's syndrome, which is associated with serious brain damage.[317]

  • A vegetarian or vegan diet can provide enough protein for adequate nutrition.[318][319] In fact, typical protein intakes ofovo-lacto vegetarians and vegans meet and exceed requirements.[320] However, a vegan diet does requiresupplementation of vitamin B12 for optimal health.[318]

  • Swallowed chewing gum does not take seven years to digest. In fact, chewing gum is mostly indigestible, and passes through the digestive system at the same rate as other matter.[321][322]

  • Evidence does not support a significant role for spicy food or coffee in the development of peptic ulcers.[323]

  • While the beta carotene in carrots can help improve night vision in those suffering from a deficiency of vitamin A, it does not enhance it beyond normal levels in those receiving an adequate amount.[324] The belief that it does originated fromWorld War II British disinformation meant to explain the Royal Air Force's improved success in night battles, which was actually due to radar and the use of red lights on instrument panels.[325]

  • There is little evidence that obesity is related to slower resting metabolism. Resting metabolic rate doesn't vary much between people. Weight gain and loss are directly attributable to diet and activity. Overweight people tend to underestimate the amount of food they eat, and underweight people tend to overestimate.[326][327][328][329][330][331][332][333][334][excessive citations]

Human sexuality

  • There is no physiological basis for the belief that having sex in the days leading up to a sporting event or contest is detrimental to performance.[335] In fact it has been suggested that sex prior to sports activity can elevate the levels oftestosterone in males, which could potentially enhance their performance.[336]

  • Pregnancies from sex between first cousins do not carry a serious risk of birth defects:[337] The risk is 5–6%, similar to that of a 40-year-old woman,[337][338] compared with a baseline risk of 3–4%.[338]

Brain

Mental abilities are not absolutely separated into the left and right cerebral hemispheres of the brain.[339] Some mental functions such as speech andlanguage (e.g. Broca's area, Wernicke's area) tend to activate one hemisphere of the brain more than the other, in some kinds of tasks. If one hemisphere is damaged at an early age, these functions can often be recovered in part or even in full by the other hemisphere (see Neuroplasticity). Other abilities such asmotor control, memory, and general reasoning are served equally by the two hemispheres.[340]

Disease

See also: Misconceptions about HIV and AIDS

Drinking milk or consuming other dairy products does not increase mucusproduction.[359][360] As a result, they do not need to be avoided by those with the flu or cold congestion.

  • Humans cannot catch warts from toads or other animals; the bumps on a toad are not warts.[361][362] Warts on human skin are caused by viruses that are unique to humans (human papillomavirus).

  • Neither cracking one's knuckles nor exercising while in good health causesosteoarthritis.[363][364]

  • Eating nuts, popcorn, or seeds does not increase the risk of diverticulitis.[365]These foods may actually have a protective effect.[366]

  • Stress plays a relatively minor role in hypertension.[367] Specific relaxation therapies are not supported by the evidence.[368] Acute stress has been shown to temporarily increase blood-pressure levels.[367] Evidence from observational studies has shown a possible association between chronic stress and a sustained rise in high blood-pressure.[367] From the medical perspective, stress plays a small part in hypertension, whereas a recurring theme in studies of the attitudes of lay people was that stress was by far the most important cause.[367]

  • In those with the common cold, the color of the sputum or nasal secretion may vary from clear to yellow to green and does not indicate the class of agent causing the infection.[369][370]

  • In general, Vitamin C does not prevent the common cold, although it may have a protective effect during intense cold-weather exercise and may slightly reduce the duration and severity of colds once infected.[371][372]

  • In people with eczema, bathing does not dry the skin and may in fact be beneficial.[373][374]

  • There are not, nor have there ever been, any programs that will provide access to dialysis machines in exchange for pull tabs on beverage cans.[375] This rumor has existed since at least the 1970s, and usually cites the National Kidney Foundation as the organization offering the program. However, the Foundation themselves have denied that this is the case, noting that 80 percent of the cost of dialysis in the United States is usually covered by Medicare.[376] However some charities, such as the Kansas City Ronald McDonald House Charities, will accept pull tab donations, which are then turned over to a local recycler for their scrap metal value.[377]

  • Rhinoceros horn in powdered form is not used as an aphrodisiac in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) as Cornu Rhinoceri Asiatici (犀角, xījiǎo, "rhinoceros horn"). It is in fact prescribed for fevers and convulsions,[378] a treatment not supported by evidence-based medicine.

  • Rust does not cause tetanus infection. Rust can normally be found outside or in other places that harbor the Clostridium tetani bacterium, but rust itself does not cause tetanus.[379]

Inventions

George Washington Carver did not invent peanut butter, though he reputedly discovered three hundred uses for peanuts and hundreds more for soybeans, pecans, and sweet potatoes.[380][381]

  • Thomas Crapper did not invent the flush toilet;[382] flushing toilets were first used in the Indus Valley Civilization, around the 26th century BCE.[383] The forerunner of the modern toilet was invented by the Elizabethan courtier Sir John Harington, who was banished from court when his book on the subject poked fun at important people.[384] Crapper, however, did much to increase its popularity and came up with some related inventions, such as the ballcock mechanism used to fill toilet tanks. The word crap is also not derived from his name (see the Words, phrases and languages section above).[385]

  • Thomas Edison did not invent the light bulb.[386] He did, however, develop the first practical light bulb in 1880 (employing a carbonized bamboo filament), shortly prior to Joseph Swan, who invented an even more efficient bulb in 1881 (which used a cellulose filament).

  • Henry Ford did not invent either the automobile or the assembly line. He did improve the assembly line process substantially, sometimes through his own engineering but more often through sponsoring the work of his employees.[387][388] Karl Benz (co-founder of Mercedes-Benz) is credited with the invention of the first modern automobile,[389] and the assembly line has existed throughout history.

  • Benjamin Franklin did not invent or propose daylight saving time. In fact, 18th-century Europe did not even keep precise schedules.[390]

  • Guglielmo Marconi did not invent the radio, but only modernized it for public broadcasting and communication.[391] For more about the controversy about who invented radio technology, see invention of radio.

  • Al Gore never said that he "invented" the Internet. What Gore actually said was, "During my service in the United States Congress, I took the initiative in creating the Internet", in reference to his political work towards developing the Internet for widespread public use.[392][393] Gore was the original drafter of the High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991, which provided significant funding for supercomputing centers, and this in turn led to upgrades of a major part of the already-existing early 1990s Internet backbone, the NSFNet, and development of NCSA Mosaic, the browserthat popularized the World Wide Web. (Also see Al Gore and information technology.)

  • James Watt did not invent the steam engine,[394] nor were his ideas on steam engine power inspired by a kettle lid pressured open by steam.[395] Watt developed upon the first commercially successful Newcomen steam engine in the 1760s and 1770s, making certain improvements critical to its future usage, particularly the external condenser, increasing its efficiency, and the mechanism for transforming reciprocating motion into rotary motion; his new steam engine later gained huge fame as a result.[396]

Materials science

  • Glass does not flow at room temperature as a high-viscosity liquid.[397] Although glass shares some molecular properties found in liquids, glass at room temperature is an "amorphous solid" that only begins to flow above the glass transition temperature,[398] though the exact nature of the glass transition is not considered settled among scientists.[399] Panes ofstained glass windows are often thicker at the bottom than at the top, and this has been cited as an example of the slow flow of glass over centuries. However, this unevenness is due to the window manufacturing processes used at the time. Normally the thick end of glass would be installed at the bottom of the frame, but it is also common to find old windows where the thicker end has been installed to the sides or the top.[398][399] No such distortion is observed in other glass objects, such as sculptures or optical instruments, that are of similar or even greater age. One researcher estimated in 1998 that for glass to actually flow at room temperatures would require a length of time many times the age of the Earth.[398][399][400]

  • Most diamonds are not formed from highly compressed coal. More than 99 percent of diamonds ever mined have formed in the conditions of extreme heat and pressure about 90 miles (140 km) below the Earth's surface. Coal is formed from prehistoric plants buried much closer to the surface, and is unlikely to migrate below 2 miles (3.2 km) through common geological processes. Most diamonds that have been dated are older than the first land plants, and are therefore older than coal. It is possible that diamonds can form from coal in subduction zones and in meteoroid impacts, but diamonds formed in this way are rare and the carbon source is more likely carbonate rocks and organic carbon in sediments, rather than coal.[401][402]

Mathematics

Physics

It is not true that air takes the same time to travel above and below an aircraft's wing.[407] This misconception, sometimes called the equal transit-time fallacy, is widespread among textbooks and non-technical reference books, and even appears in pilot training materials. In fact the air moving over the top of an airfoil generating lift is always moving much faster than the equal transit theory would imply,[407] as described in the incorrect andcorrect explanations of lift force.

  • Blowing over a curved piece of paper does not demonstrate Bernoulli's principle. Although a common classroom experiment is often explained this way,[408] it is false to make a connection between the flow on the two sides of the paper using Bernoulli's equation since the air above and below are different flow fields and Bernoulli's principle only applies within a flow field.[409] The paper rises because the air follows the curve of the paper and a curved streamline will develop pressure differences perpendicular to the airflow.[410] Bernoulli's principle predicts that the decrease in pressure is associated with an increase in speed, i.e. that as the air passes over the paper it speeds up and moves faster than it was moving when it left the demonstrator's mouth. But this is not apparent from the demonstration.[411]

  • Water does not consistently drain in a counter-clockwise vortex in basins in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern due to the Coriolis effect. The claim that the Coriolis effect is far too weak to influence the draining of liquid from a basin is also incorrect.[412][413][414] The Coriolis effect is indeed real and does impact the draining, but its impact is tiny compared to that of residual current, debris or imperfections in the basin, or a host of other possible factors, and sinks may be found draining either counter-clockwise or clockwise on either side of the equator.[415] Nevertheless, a team led by Ascher Shapiro and MIT filled a special cylindrical tank with water, sealed it, and let it sit for a day; when drained, it eventually did form a clear counter-clockwise whirlpool, which confirmed the hypothesis that the Coriolis effect does impact even small-scale drains. (The experiment was successfully repeated multiple times elsewhere in the Northern Hemisphere; identical tests in Sydney produced the opposite effect, as predicted.)[416]

  • Gyroscopic forces or geometric trail are not required for a rider to balance a bicycle or for it to demonstrate self-stability.[417][418] Although gyroscopic forces and trail can be contributing factors, it has been demonstrated that those factors are neither required nor sufficient by themselves.[417]

  • The idea that lightning never strikes the same place twice is one of the oldest and best known superstitions about lightning. There is no reason that lightning would not be able to strike the same place twice; if there is a thunderstorm in a given area, then objects and places which are more prominent or conductive (and therefore minimize distance) are more likely to be struck. For instance, lightning strikes the Empire State Building in New York City about 100 times per year.[419][420]

  • A penny dropped from the Empire State Building will not kill a person or crack the sidewalk.[421] The terminal velocity of a falling penny is about 30–50 miles per hour (50–80 km/h), and the penny will not exceed that speed regardless of the height from which it is dropped. At that speed, its energy is not enough to penetrate a human skull or crack concrete, as demonstrated on an episode of MythBusters. As MythBusters noted, the Empire State Building is a particularly poor setting for this misconception, since its tapered shape would make it impossible to drop anything directly from the top to street level. MythBusters also pointed out that this doesn't mean that dropping coins from high altitude is safe. It might still cause harm.

  • When the ambient temperature is low, temporarily decreasing the temperature setting on a building's programmable thermostat (e.g. at night or when it is unoccupied) rather than maintaining a steady temperature can save a significant amount of energy.[422] A common myth is that if the building is allowed to cool, its furnace has to "work harder" to reheat it to a comfortable temperature, counteracting or even exceeding the energy saved while the temperature was allowed to drop. Actually this practice can result in energy savings of five to fifteen percent as the heat lost by a warm structure in a cold environment is proportional to the temperature difference between the inside and outside of the structure.

Psychology

  • Dyslexia is not a cognitive disorder characterized by the reversal of letters or words and mirror writing. It is a disorder of people who have at least average intelligence and who have difficulty in spelling words, reading quickly, writing words, "sounding out" words in the head, pronouncing words when reading aloud and understanding what they read. Although some dyslexics also have problems with letter reversal, that is not a symptom that is characteristic of dyslexia.[423]

  • There is no scientific evidence for the existence of "photographic" memory in adults (the ability to remember images with so high a precision as to mimic a camera),[424] but some young children have eidetic memory.[425] Many people have claimed to have a photographic memory, but those people have been shown to have good memories as a result ofmnemonic devices rather than a natural capacity for detailed memory encoding.[426] There are rare cases of individuals with exceptional memory, but none of them have a memory that mimics a camera.

  • Schizophrenia is not the same thing as dissociative identity disorder, namely split or multiple personalities.[427]Etymologically, the term "schizophrenia" comes from the Greek roots skhizein (σχίζειν, "to split") and phrēn, phren- (φρήν, φρεν-; "mind") and is a juxtaposition proposed by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler, which may have given rise to this common misconception.

Transportation

  • Toilet waste is never intentionally jettisoned from an aircraft. All waste is collected in tanks which are emptied on the ground by toilet waste vehicles.[428] Blue ice is caused by accidental leakage from the waste tank. Passenger trains, on the other hand, have indeed historically flushed onto the tracks; modern trains usually have retention tanks on board and therefore do not dispose of waste in such a manner.

  • Automotive batteries stored on a concrete floor do not discharge any faster than they would on other surfaces,[429] in spite of worry among Americans that concrete harms batteries.[430] Early batteries might have been susceptible to moisture from floors due to leaky, porous cases, but for many years lead–acid car batteries have had impermeable polypropylene cases,[431] and are maintenance-free, so they do not leak battery acid.[432][433]

[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_common_misconceptions]

 

Scientific misconceptions

Types of scientific misconceptions

Misconceptions (a.k.a. alternative conceptions, alternative frameworks, etc.) are a key issue from constructivism in science education, a major theoretical perspective informing science teaching.[1] In general, scientific misconceptions have their foundations in a few "intuitive knowledge domains, including folkmechanics (object boundaries and movements), folkbiology (biological species configurations and relationships), and folkpsychology (interactive agents and goal-directed behavior)",[2]that enable humans to interact effectively with the world in which they evolved. That these folksciences do not map accurately onto modern scientific theory is not unexpected. A second major source of scientific misconceptions are instruction-induced or didaskalogenic misconceptions.

There has been extensive research into students' informal ideas about science topics, and studies have suggested reported misconceptions vary considerably in terms of properties such as coherence, stability, context-dependence, range of application etc.[3] Misconceptions can be broken down into five basic categories,(Alkhalifa ,2006) 1) preconceived notions; 2) nonscientific beliefs; 3) conceptual misunderstandings; 4) vernacular misconceptions; and 5) factual misconceptions (e.g., Committee on Undergraduate Science Education, 1997).

While most student misconceptions go unrecognized, there has been an informal effort to identify errors and misconceptions present in textbooks. The Bad Science web page, maintained by Alistair Fraser, is a good resource. Another important resource is the Students' and Teachers' Conceptions and Science Education (STCSE) website maintained by Reinders Duit. Another useful resource related to chemistry has been compiled by Vanessa Barker

Identifying student misconceptions

In the context of Socratic instruction, student misconceptions are identified and addressed through a process of questioning and listening. A number of strategies have been employed to understand what students are thinking prior, or in response, to instruction. These strategies include various forms of "real type" feedback, which can involve the use of colored cards or electronic survey systems (clickers).[4] Another approach is typified by the strategy known as "Just in Time Teaching".[5][6]Here students are asked various questions prior to class, the instructor uses these responses to adapt his or her teaching to the students' prior knowledge and misconceptions.

Finally, there is a more research-intensive approach that involves interviewing students for the purpose of generating the items that will make up a concept inventory or other forms of diagnostic instruments.[7] Concept inventories require intensive validation efforts. Perhaps the most influential of these concept inventories to date has been the Force Concept Inventory (FCI).[8] [9] Concept inventories can be particularly helpful in identifying difficult ideas that serve as a barrier to effective instruction.[10] Concept Inventories in natural selection[11][12][13] and basic biology [14] have been developed.

Whilst not all the published diagnostic instruments have been developed as carefully as some concept inventories, some two-tier diagnostic instruments (which offer multiple choice distractors informed by misconceptions research, and then ask learners to give reasons for their choices) have been through rigorous development.[15] In identifying students' misconceptions, first you can identify their preconceptions. "Teachers need to know students' initial and developing conceptions. Students need to have their initial ideas brought to a conscious level." [16]

Addressing student misconceptions

A number of lines of evidence suggest that the recognition and revision of student misconceptions involves active, rather than passive, involvement with the material. A common approach to instruction involves meta-cognition, that is to encourage students to think about their thinking about a particular problem. In part this approach requires students to verbalize, defend and reformulate their understanding. Recognizing the realities of the modern classroom, a number of variations have been introduced. These include Eric Mazur's peer instruction, as well as various tutorials in physics developed groups atUniversity of Washington and the University of Maryland. Scientific inquiry is another technique that provides an active engagement opportunity for students and incorporates meta-cognition and critical thinking.

Success with inquiry based learning activities relies on a deep foundation of factual knowledge. Students then use observation, imagination, and reasoning about scientific phenomena they are studying to organize knowledge within a conceptual framework.[17][18] The teacher monitors the changing concepts of the students through formative assessment as the instruction proceeds. Beginning inquiry activities should develop from simple concrete examples to more abstract.[18] As students progress through inquiry, opportunities should be included for students to generate, ask, and discuss challenging questions. According to Magnusson and Palincsan,[19] teachers should allow multiple cycles of investigation where students can ask the same questions as their understanding of the concept matures. Through strategies that apply formative assessment of student learning and adjust accordingly, teachers can help redirect scientific misconceptions.

[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_misconceptions]

 

 

Gödel's completeness theorem

Gödel's completeness theorem is a fundamental theorem in mathematical logic that establishes a correspondence between semantic truth and syntacticprovability in first-order logic. It makes a close link between model theory that deals with what is true in different models, and proof theory that studies what can be formally proven in particular formal systems.

It was first proved by Kurt Gödel in 1929. It was then simplified in 1947, when Leon Henkin observed in hisPh.D. thesis that the hard part of the proof can be presented as the Model Existence Theorem (published in 1949). Henkin's proof was simplified by Gisbert Hasenjaeger in 1953.

Consequences

An important consequence of the completeness theorem is that it is possible to recursively enumerate the semantic consequences of any effective first-order theory, by enumerating all the possible formal deductions from the axioms of the theory, and use this to produce an enumeration of their conclusions.

This comes in contrast with the direct meaning of the notion of semantic consequence, that quantifies over all structures in a particular language, which is clearly not a recursive definition.

Also, it makes the concept of "provability," and thus of "theorem," a clear concept that only depends on the chosen system of axioms of the theory, and not on the choice of a proof system.

[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gödel%27s_completeness_theorem]

 

I know that I know nothing

The phrase "I know that I know nothing" or "I know one thing; that I know nothing", sometimes called the Socratic paradox, is a well-known saying that is derived from Plato's account of the Greek philosopher Socrates. The phrase is not one that Socrates himself is ever recorded as saying.

This saying is also connected or conflated with the answer to a question Socrates (according to Xenophon) or Chaerephon (according to Plato) is said to have posed to the Pythia, the oracle of Delphi, in which the Oracle stated something to the effect of "Socrates is the wisest."[1]

[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I_know_that_I_know_nothing]

 

 

All people, with no exceptions, think in terms of their corresponding native language. Therefore, as Gödel's (language in-) completeness theorem proves, we all suffer from misconceptions.

Misconceptions often lead to tragedies. For example,

  • Adolf, faultily believed that he would had avoided being poisoned by having someone else tasting his meal before him, while, he wrongfully entrusted a criminal who was pretending that he was a medical doctor and who was poisoning him every day.
  • The second world war has taken place, and probably lost, over the false beliefs, that it had meaning and also, that it was possible, to conduct a chivalrous war against non chivalrous opponents.

Because of, also, those misconceptions, many millions innocent people lost their sacred lives.
Also, misconceptions lay beneath, almost, each and every fraud.
By cultivating, spreading, propagating and then, exploiting misconceptions,
one, may immorally and probably, illegitimately gain monetary value worth up to, even, trillions of euros. For example, by establishing a pseudo-science, and/or, by inventing non-existent diseases.
With the same method, one, may immorally and probably, illegitimately gain enormous political power. For example, by establishing foreign military bases disguised as honorary consulates.

Language undesidabilities, namely misconceptions, are potential traps of catastrophe.
Human beings may defend, their countries, their families and themselves, by resorting to a three-fold defense:

  1. Managing to become able to promptly comprehend the notion of language's undecidability, namely, the fact that, "I know that I know nothing" or "I know one thing; that I know nothing", which, sometimes is called the Socratic paradox, and which is a well-known saying that is derived from Plato's account of the Greek philosopher Socrates.
  2. Asking direct questions, namely, performing dialog.
  3. Remaining honest, which is the most important defense, of man kind, against each and every threat of life, for having a motive to keep the basic principles of being just. Namely, to offer, where it should, chances for providing adequate explanations which may resolve the manifestations of language undecidability and also, which may resolve the problems caused by the colonialism of our days.

How can, one, protect his own people from the catastrophic hazards of misconceptions?
For example, could I ever approach, e.g. 93 million citizens, separately each one, and beg them to reveal to me their misconceptions in order to train them how to overcome the manifestations of undecidabilitie
s?
Should I safeguard, personally, 93 million citizens, one by one, against the atrocious, colonial exploitation of ordinary people's ignorance about the notion of language undecidability?

Luckily, Nations do not, always, differ too much with each other. And some times they remain, almost, identical. And as being, almost, identical they may suffer from the same problems, which, as it is frequently happening, they are faultily being attributed, by dishonest propaganda (mass media, colonialists, etc), to the corresponding Nation's collective character, in order for false guilt to become cultivated within each Nation and in order, that false guilt, to waste most of the creativity each Nation possesses.
By bringing together, face to face, couples of Nations which are, almost, identical, one, may offer to both of those Nations the chance:

  • To recognize its own problems upon the other Nation, and, hopefully,
  • To start doubting about the supposed (false) blame (promoted by dishonest propaganda) upon themselves.

Stupidity remains, always, one undeniable Human Right, while, discrete and collective, prudent togetherness among equals, may be, the solution to the universal problem of ignorance, as well as, the “key” to establishing universal, Peace, Freedom, Cooperation and frugal Prosperity.


Christos Boumpoulis

economist

 

 

Τελευταία Ενημέρωση στις Παρασκευή, 12 Μάιος 2017 09:47